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Number of items: 240.

A

Aldrich-Smith, G; Jennett, N M (2004) Static and dynamic calibrations of the nanotest at NPL. NPL Report. DEPC-MPE 004

Aldrich-Smith, G; Jennett, N M; Housden, J* (2004) A round robin to measure the adhesion of thin coatings. NPL Report. DEPC-MPE 001

Alexander, M J; Salter, M J; Gentle, D G; Knight, D A; Loader, B G; Holland, K P (2004) Calibration and use of antennas, focusing on EMC applications. Measurement Good Practice Guide. 73

Arinc, A; Woods, D H; Jerome, S M; Collins, S M; Pearce, A K; Gilligan, C R D; Chari, K V; Baker, M; Petrie, N E; Stroak, A J; Phillips, H C; Harms, A V (2004) Environmental radioactivity comparison exercise 2003 (overseas report). NPL Report. DQL-RN 002

Arinc, A; Woods, D H; Jerome, S M; Collins, S M; Pearce, A K; Gilligan, C R D; Chari, K V; Baker, M; Petrie, N E; Stroak, A J; Phillips, H C; Harms, A V (2004) Environmental radioactivity comparison exercise 2003. NPL Report. DQL-RN 001

Arnaut, L R (2004) Compromizing and optimizing the design of special-purpose reverberation chambers for HIRF testing. In: 2004 IEEE Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 9-13 August 2004, San Jose, USA.

Arnaut, L R (2004) High-Q planar chiral metafilms for improved spectral and spatial filtering. In: Bianisotropics 2004 - 10th International Conference on Electromagnetics of Complex Media, 22-24 September 2004, Ghent, Belgium.

Arnaut, L R (2004) Statistical modelling of power dissipation in electronic circuits immersed in a random electromagnetic field. In: 2004 URSI EMT-S Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory, 23-27 May 2004, Pisa, Italy.

Ashcroft, G; Hall, M J (2004) Traceable measurements of magnetic moment and DC susceptibility. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

Awan, S A (2004) Editorial on electromagnetic measurements and techniques. IEE Proc. Sci. Meas. Technol., 151 (5). pp. 354-355.

Awan, S A; Callegaro, L*; Kibble, B P (2004) Resonance frequency of four terminal-pair air-dielectric capacitance standards and closing the metrological impedance triangle (MIT). Meas. Sci. Technol., 15 (5). pp. 969-972.

Awan, S A; Kibble, B P (2004) Towards accurate measurement of the frequency dependence of capacitance and resistance standards up to 10 MHz. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

B

Barker, R M; Parkin, G I (2004) Techniques for validation of measurement software - without specialised tools. NPL Report. CMSC 43/04

Barwood, G P; Margolis, H S; Huang, G; Gill, P; Klein, H A (2004) Determination of the quadrupole frequency shift of the 2S1/2 2D5/2 transition in 88Sr+ at 674 nm. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2007, London, UK.

Beamiss, G A; Hayman, G; Robinson, S P; Thompson, A D (2004) Improvements in the provision of standards for underwater acoustics at simulated ocean conditions. NPL Report. DQL-AC 010

Beckett, R E; Cox, M G; Dainton, M P; Harris, P M; Johnson, E G; Parkin, G I (2004) Testing methods of Java libraries. NPL Report. CMSC 35/04

Blackburn, J (2004) Calculating attenuation in waveguides below cut off. IEE Proc. Sci. Meas. Technol., 151 (5). pp. 356-361.

Blackburn, J; Arnaut, L R; Mias, C* (2004) High-Q FSS for improved spectrum efficiency; filling in shadow regions using corrugations on buildings. In: 3rd Annual Wireless Broadband Forum, 16-17 November 2004, Hinxton, UK.

Blues, J*; Bayliss, D J; Buckley, M* (2004) The calibration and use of piston pipettes. Measurement Good Practice Guide. 69

Boudjemaa, R; Forbes, A B (2004) Parameter estimation methods in data fusion. NPL Report. CMSC 38/04

Brennan, J K*; Mason, J C*; Jiang, X*; Leach, R K; Harris, P M (2004) Approximation of surface texture profiles and parameters. In: 4th euspen International Conference, 31 May 2004 - 2 June 2004, Glasgow, UK.

Brewin, A; Zou, L; Hunt, C (2004) Susceptibility of glass-reinforced epoxy laminate to conductive anodic filamentation. NPL Report. MATC(A)155

Brickley, C J; Zeqiri, B; Robinson, S R (2004) Providing primary standard calibrations beyond 20 MHz. J. Phys., Conf. Ser., 1. pp. 20-25.

Broughton, W R; Crocker, L E; Gower, M R L; Shaw, R M (2004) Assessment of predictive analysis for bonded and bolted T-joints. NPL Report. DEPC-MPR 002

Broughton, W R; Shaw, R M (2004) Monitoring the effect of damage in bonded and bolted T-joints. NPL Report. MATC(MN)56

Brown, A S; Milton, M J T; Cowper, C J*; Squire, G D*; Bremser, W*; Branch, R W* (2004) Analysis of natural gas by gas chromatography reduction of correlated uncertainties by normalisation. Journal of Chromatography A, 1040 (2). pp. 215-225.

Brown, E; Hao, L; Gallop, J C; MacFarlane, J C (2004) Thermal measurements on multi-wall nanotubes. AIP Conf. Proc., 723. pp. 91-94.

Brown, R J C (2004) Spectacular spectroscopy - surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Laboratory News (Novemb). pp. 28-29.

Brown, R J C; Long, N J*; Mongay-Batalla, C* (2004) Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies on platinum and palladium phthalocyanines. New. J. Chem., 28 (6). pp. 676-680.

Brown, R J C; Milton, M J T (2004) Demonstration of the micro-porous structure of silver/silver chloride electrodes and the implications for Harned Cell operation. NPL Report. DQL-AS 001

Brown, R J C; Yardley, R E; Brown, A S; Milton, M J T (2004) Sample matrix and critical interference effects on the recovery and accuracy of concentration measurements of arsenic in ambient particulate samples using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectroscopy, 19. pp. 703-705.

Butterfield, D M; Robinson, R A (2004) Gaseous proficiency testing scheme for the STA, round 2. NPL Report. DQL-AS 006

Byng, M*; Langdell, S* (2004) Classification techniques and the application to metrology. NPL Report. CMSC 37/04

C

Cheung, J Y; Vaughan, M P; Mountford, J R; Chunnilall, C J (2004) Correlated photon metrology of detectors and sources. Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 5161 (1). pp. 365-376.

Clifford, C A; Cumpson, P J; Seah, M P (2004) Nano-analysis using Atomic Force Microscopy. VAM Bulletin, 31. pp. 21-25.

Cox, M G; Esward, T J; Harris, P M; McCormick, N J; Ridler, N M; Salter, M J; Walton, J P R B* (2004) Visualization of uncertainty associated with classes of electrical measurements. NPL Report. CMSC 44/04

Cox, M G; Forbes, A B; Harris, P M; Smith, I M (2004) The classification and solution of regression problems for calibration. NPL Report. CMSC 24/03

Cox, M G; Harris, P M (2004) Software specifications for uncertainty evaluation. NPL Report. CMSC 40/04

Cox, M G; Harris, P M (2004) Statistical error modelling. NPL Report. CMSC 45/04

Cox, M G; Harris, P M (2004) Technical aspects of guidelines for the evaluation of key comparison data. Izmeritelnaya Technika, 47 (1). pp. 102-111.

Cox, M G; Harris, P M; Johnson, E G; Kenward, P D; Parkin, G I (2004) Testing the numerical correctness of software. NPL Report. CMSC 34/04

Cox, M G; Harris, P M; Kenward, P D; Smith, I M (2004) Exploratory data analysis. NPL Report. CMSC 47/04

Cox, M G; Harris, P M; Lazzari, A* (2004) The applicability of non-parametric methods of statistical analysis to metrology. NPL Report. CMSC 46/04

Cox, M G; Stevens, M J (2004) International activities during the second SSfM programme, 2001 - 2004. NPL Report. CMSC 36/04

Cumpson, P J; Clifford, C A; Hedley, J* (2004) Quantitative analytical atomic force microscopy: a cantilever reference device for easy and accurate AFM spring-constant calibration. Meas. Sci. Technol., 15. pp. 1337-1346.

Cumpson, P J; Hedley, J*; Clifford, C A; Chen, X*; Allen, S* (2004) Microelectromechanical systems device for calibration of atomic force microscope cantilever spring constants between 0.01 and 4 N/m. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 22 (4). pp. 1444-1449.

Cumpson, P J; Zhdan, P*; Hedley, J* (2004) Calibration of AFM cantilever stiffness: a microfabricated array of reflective springs. Ultramicroscopy, 100. pp. 241-251.

D

Davidson, S; Brown, S B; Berry, J (2004) A report on the potential reduction in uncertainty from traceable comparisons of platinum-iridium and stainless steel kilogram mass standards in vacuum. NPL Report. CMAM 88

Davidson, S; Perkin, M; Buckley, M* (2004) The measurement of mass and weight. Measurement Good Practice Guide. 71

Dean, G D; Crocker, L E; Read, B; Wright, L (2004) Prediction of deformation and failure of rubber-toughened adhesive joints. International Journal of Adhesives and Adhesion, 24 (4). pp. 295-306.

Dean, G D; Mera, R D (2004) Determination of material properties and parameters required for the simulation of impact performance of plastics using finite element analysis. NPL Report. DEPC-MPR 007

Dean, G D; Mera, R D (2004) Modelling creep in toughened epoxy adhesives for finite element analysis. NPL Report. DEPC-MPR 003

Dean, J C J; Kolkowski, P (2004) The development of a 222Rn standard solution dispenser at NPL. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 61. pp. 95-100.

Duncan, B C; Arranz, E; Crocker, L E; Urquhart, J M (2004) Tests for strength of adhesion. NPL Report. MATC(A)161

Duncan, B C; Broughton, W R (2004) Characterising strength of adhesion. Measurement Good Practice Guide. 72

Duncan, B C; Lodeiro, M J (2004) Adhesion durability assessment. NPL Report. DEPC-MPR 004

Dura, J A*; Seah, M P (2004) Advances in measurement: neutron reflectometry for highly accurate nanometer metrology.

Dury, M R*; Theocharous, E; Harrison, N J; Hilton, M*; Fox, N P (2004) The NPL wide-area, MIR calibration source. Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 5405 (1). pp. 532-540.

Dusek, M; Hunt, C (2004) Crack detection methods for lead-free solder joints. NPL Report. MATC(A)164

Dusek, M; Hunt, C (2004) Measurement note - crack detection methods for lead-free solder joints. NPL Report. DEPC-MN 001

Dusek, M; Hunt, C (2004) The analytical model for thermal cycling. NPL Report. MATC(A)163

Dusek, M; Wickham, M; Hunt, C (2004) Shear strength of lead-free solder joints. NPL Report. MATC(MN)57

E

Ebbecke, J; Fletcher, N E; Janssen, T J B M; Ahlers, F J*; Pepper, M*; Beere, H E*; Ritchie, D A* (2004) Quantized charge pumping through a quantum dot by surface acoustic waves. Appl. Phys. Lett., 84 (21). pp. 4319-4321.

Edwards, C S; Margolis, H S; Barwood, G P; Gill, P; Rowley, W R C (2004) Frequency measurements of 778nm rubidium two photon diode laser diodes. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

Edwards, C S; Margolis, H S; Barwood, G P; Lea, S N; Gill, P; Huang, G; Rowley, W R C (2004) Absolute frequency measurement of a 1.5µm acetylene standard by use of a combined frequency chain and femtosecond comb. Opt. Lett., 29 (6). pp. 566-568.

Edwards, C S; Margolis, H S; Barwood, G P; Lea, S N; Gill, P; Huang, G; Rowley, W R C (2004) Absolute frequency measurements of 1.5 micron acetylene-stabilized lasers. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

Esward, T J; Johnson, E G; Wright, L (2004) Testing continuous modelling software. NPL Report. CMSC 41/04

Esward, T J; Lees, K; Sayers, D*; Wright, L (2004) Testing continuous modelling software: three case studies. NPL Report. CMSC 42/04

Etchegoin, P*; Cohen, L F*; Hartigan, H; Brown, R J C; Milton, M J T; Gallop, J C (2004) Localized plasmon resonances in inhomogeneous metallic nanoclusters. Chem. Phys. Lett., 383. pp. 577-583.

F

Flowers, J L (2004) The route to atomic and quantum standards. Science, 306 (5700). pp. 1324-1330.

Flowers, J L; Klein, H A; Margolis, H S; Reed, R P (2004) Precision spectroscopy of metastable atomic hydrogen: towards an improved determination of the Rydburg constant. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

Forbes, A B; Leach, R K; Brill, N* (2004) The Abbe principle, self-calibration and the design of co-ordinate measuring systems. In: 4th euspen International Conference, 31 May 2004 - 2 June 2004, Glasgow, UK.

G

Gant, A J; Roebuck, B; James, W B* (2004) Notch fatigue tests on a hybrid alloy PM steel. In: PM 2004 World Conference on PM, October 2004, Vienna, Austria.

Gardiner, C H; Boothroyd, A T*; McKelvy, M J*; McIntyre, G J*; Prokes, K* (2004) Field-induced magnetic and structual domain alignment in PrO2. Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter, 70. 024416

Gardiner, C H; Boothroyd, A T*; Pattison, P*; McKelvy, M J*; McIntyre, G J*; Lister, S J S* (2004) Cooperative Jahn-Teller distortion in PrO2. Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter, 70. 024415

Gardiner, C H; Lee, R A M; Gallop, J C; Tzalenchuk, A Ya; Macfarlane, J C*; Hao, L (2004) Degenerate ground state and anomalous flux hysteresis in an YBa2Cu3O7 grain boundary r.f. SQUID. Supercond. Sci. Technol., 17. S234-S240

Gee, M G; Gant, A; Hutchings, I M*; Kusano, Y*; Schiffman, K*; van Acker, K*; Poulat, S*; Gachon, Y*; von Stebut, J*; Hatto, P*; Plint, G* (2004) CRATER: interlaboratory exercise description, procedure and results. NPL Report. MATC(A)168

Georgakopoulos, D; Pickering, J R*; Williams, J M; Wright, P S (2004) Oversampling delta-sigma ADC for metrology applications. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

Gilmore, I S (2004) G-SIMS - direct analysis of organic surfaces. VAM Bulletin, 31. pp. 17-21.

Gilmore, I S; Seah, M P (2004) Organic molecule characterization - G-SIMS. Appl. Surf. Sci., 231-23. pp. 224-229.

Gilmore, I S; Seah, M P; Henderson, A* (2004) Summary of ISO/TC 201 standard: XXII. ISO 22048:2004 - surface chemical analysis - information format for static secondary ion mass spectrometry. Surf. Interface Anal., 36. pp. 1642-1644.

Grant, P V; Hurst, J*; Lord, J D (2004) Validation of strain gauge, digital image correlation and dilatometry procedures for measuring CTE. NPL Report. MATC(MN)45

Gressier, V*; Lacoste, V*; Lebreton, L*; Muller, H*; Pelcot, G*; Bakali, M*; Fernandez, F*; Tomas, M*; Roberts, N J; Thomas, D J; Reginatto, M*; Wiegel, B*; Wittstock, J* (2004) Characterization of the IRSN facility CANEL/T400 producing realistic neutron fields for calibration and test purposes. Technical Report. Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire.

Gressier, V*; Lacoste, V*; Lebreton, L*; Muller, H*; Pelcot, G*; Bakali, M*; Fernández, F*; Tómas, M*; Roberts, N J; Thomas, D J; Reginatto, M*; Wiegel, B*; Wittstock, J* (2004) Characterization of the IRSN CANEL/T400 facility producing realistic neutron fields for calibration and test purposes. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 110 (1-4). pp. 523-527.

Gressier, V*; Lacoste, V*; Lebreton, L*; Muller, H*; Pelcot, G*; Bakali, M*; Fernández, F*; Tómas, M*; Roberts, N J; Thomas, D J; Reginatto, M*; Wiegel, B*; Wittstock, J* (2004) Characterization of the IRSN CANEL/T400 facility producing realistic neutron fields for calibration and test purposes. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 110. pp. 523-527.

Gressier, V*; Lacoste, V*; Lebreton, L*; Muller, H*; Pelcot, G*; Bakali, M*; Fernández, F*; Tómas, M*; Roberts, N J; Thomas, D J; Reginatto, M*; Wiegel, B*; Wittstock, J* (2004) Characterization of the IRSN CANEL/T400 facility producing realistic neutron fields for calibration and test purposes. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 110. pp. 523-527.

Griffiths, A J; Nimmo, W; Roebuck, B; Hinds, G; Turnbull, A (2004) A novel approach to characterising the mechanical properties of super 13 Cr steel welds. Mater. Sci. Eng.A, Struct. Mater., Prop. Microstruct., Process., 384. pp. 83-91.

H

Hall, M J; Henderson, L C A; Ashcroft, G; Harmon, S; Warnecke, P*; Schmacher, B*; Rietveld, G* (2004) Discrepancies between the DC and AC measurement of low frequency electrical conductivity. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

Halliwell, C M; Davies, J A; Gallop, J C; Josephs-Franks, P W (2004) Real-time scanning tunnelling microscopy imaging of protein motion at electrode surfaces. Bioelectrochemistry, 63. pp. 225-228.

Halliwell, C M; Green, F; Gilmore, I S; Cumpson, P J; Davies, J A (2004) Nanoanalytical measurements for the determination of protein orientation at surfaces. The Analyst, 129. pp. 1166-1170.

Hanson, A R; Pointer, M R; Clarke, P J (2004) The uncertainty of surface colour measurements made with commercially-available diode-array instrumentation and recommended calibration protocols. NPL Report. DQL-OR 005

Harmon, S A C; Hall, M J; Henderson, L C A; Munday, P P (2004) Calibration of commercial conductivity meters for measuring small items. IEE Proc. Sci. Meas. Technol., 151 (5). pp. 376-380.

Harms, A V; Baker, M; Jerome, S M; Pearce, A K; Woods, M J; Woods, S A (2004) Secondary standardisation of 95mTc. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 60 (2-4). pp. 553-555.

Harms, A V; Baker, M; Jerome, S M; Pearce, A K; Woods, M J*; Woods, S A (2004) Secondary standardisation of 95mTc. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 60 (2-4). pp. 553-555.

Harms, A V; Baker, M; Jerome, S M; Pearce, A K; Woods, M J*; Woods, S A (2004) Secondary standardisation of 95mTc. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 60 (2-4). pp. 553-555.

Harms, A V; Jerome, S M (2004) On the integrated decay and ingrowth equation used in the measurement of radioactive decay families: the general solution. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 61. pp. 367-372.

Harper, M R; Smith, A J A; Basu, A; Humphreys, D A (2004) Calibration of a 70 GHz oscilloscope. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

Harris, P M; Smith, I M (2004) Testing algorithms for free-knot spline approximation. NPL Report. CMSC 48/04

Hawkes, N P (2004) Pulse shape discrimination in hydrogen proportional counters by digital methods. NPL Report. DQL-RN 007

Hedley, J*; Burdess, J S*; Harris, A J*; Gallacher, B J*; McNeil, C J*; Cumpson, P J; Enderling, S* (2004) An optical workstation for characterisation and modification of MEMS. Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 5458. pp. 244-252.

Henderson, L C A; Hall, M J; Harmon, S A C; Ashcroft, G; Warnecke, P*; Schumacher, B*; Rietveld, G*; Brigodiot, G*; Hocking, C*; White, A*; Bodenberger, R* (2004) Techniques and materials for the measurement of DC and AC conductivity of non-ferrous metals and alloys. Conductivity. Final report (open version) on activities within the RTD Project G6RD-CT-2000-00210. NPL Report. DEM-ES 001

Hinds, G (2004) Performance and durability of PEM fuel cells: a review. NPL Report. DEPC-MPE 002

Hodnett, M; Zeqiri, B (2004) A detector for monitoring the onset of cavitation during therapy-level measurements of ultrasonic power. J. Phys., Conf. Ser., 1. pp. 112-117.

Hopkinson, G R*; Goodman, T M; Prince, S R (2004) A guide to the use and calibration of detector array equipment.

Hughes, E B; Oldfield, S (2004) Thrust balance for ground testing of electric thrusters. In: 4th euspen International Conference, May 2004, Glasgow, UK.

Humphreys, D A; Bernard, F (2004) An assessment of measurement requirements for the optical datacomms industry. NPL Report. DEM-EM 006

Hunt, T; Montgomery, R; Harrison, N J; Woolliams, E R (2004) QTH filament collapse: an investigation into the collapse of filaments of FEl QTH lamps used as irradiance standards. NPL Report. DQL-OR 003

I

Ives, D J (2004) Calibration of a polarisation rotator, to launch defined polarisation states. In: Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements 2004 (NIST Special Publication 1024), September 2004, NIST, Boulder, USA.

Ives, D J (2004) Measurement requirements and methods for: optical fibre polarisation controllers. NPL Report. DEM-EM 001

Ives, D J (2004) Polarisation effects and measurements in optical fibre systems. Measurement Good Practice Guide. 67

Ives, D J; Parkin, G I; Smith, J; Stevens, M; Taylor, J A F; Wicks, M C (2004) Use of Internet by calibration services: demonstration of technology. NPL Report. CMSC 49/04

J

Jennett, N M; Aldrich-Smith, G; Maxwell, A S (2004) Validated measurement of Young's Modulus, Poisson Ratio and thickness for thin coatings by combining instrumented (nano)indentation and acoustic measurements. J. Mater. Res., 19. pp. 143-148.

Jobling, B; Simmons, D; Payne, R (2004) Measurement uncertainties associated with sound power level determination due to source operating conditions. NPL Report. DQL-AC 006

Johansson, L C; Harms, A V; Keightley, J D; Pearce, A K; Woods, D H; Woods, M J (2004) Primary standardisation of 204Ti using the efficiency trace method. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 60 (2-4). pp. 347-351.

Johansson, L C; Harms, A V; Keightley, J D; Pearce, A K; Woods, D H; Woods, M J (2004) Primary standardisation of 204Ti using the efficiency trace method. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 60 (2-4). pp. 347-351.

Johansson, L C; Harms, A V; Keightley, J D; Pearce, A K; Woods, D H; Woods, M J (2004) Primary standardisation of 204Tl using efficiency tracing method. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 60 (2-4). pp. 347-351.

Jones, C*; Knight, A; Llordés, A B*; Marrington, R*; Rodger, A*; Schiffmann, D; Vives, O C*; Windsor, S A; Yardley, R E (2004) Val-CiD Appendix B: the use of chemical calibrants in circular dichroism spectrometers. NPL Report. DQL-AS 010

Jones, C*; Schiffman, D; Knight, A; Windsor, S A (2004) Val-CiD best practice guide: CD spectroscopy for the quality control of biopharmaceuticals. NPL Report. DQL-AS 008

Judge, S M (2004) A review of UK requirements for a measurement infrastructure for radionuclides used in Positron Emission Tomography. NPL Report. DQL-RN 006

K

Karhu, P*; Jerome, S M (2004) Proficiency tests for radionuclide laboratories supporting the network of IMS stations. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 61. pp. 415-419.

Kitaguchi, S*; Westland, S*; Owens, H*; Luo, M R*; Pointer, M R (2004) Surface texture - a review. NPL Report. DQL-OR 006

Knight, A; Gaunt, J*; Davidson, T; Chechik, V*; Windsor, S A (2004) Evaluation of the suitability of quantum dots as fluorescence standards. NPL Report. DQL-AS 007

Knight, D A; Nothofer, A; Alexander, M J (2004) Comparison of calibration methods for monopole antennas, with some analysis of the capacitance substitution method. NPL Report. DEM-EM 005

Knott, A J (2004) Developments at NPL to improve calibration of force and torque. Meas. Control, 37 (8). pp. 246-251.

Knox, S (2004) Investigation into optogalvanic reference lines. NPL Report. DEM-EM 004

L

Lea, S N; Flowers, J L (2004) Proposed laboratory tests of time-variation of the fundamental constants using the ensemble of frequency standards at NPL. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

Lea, S N; Huang, G; Margolis, H S; Gill, P (2004) Extending the range and utility of femtosecond combs. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

Leach, R K (2004) Some issues of traceability in the field of surface topography measurement. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces, April 2004, Sweden.

Leach, R K (2004) Some issues of traceability in the field of surface topography measurement. Wear, 257. pp. 1246-1249.

Leach, R K (2004) Surface texture metrology: more than just skin deep. Eng. Technol. (March). pp. 42-43.

Leach, R K; Bennett, I* (2004) Characterisation of a new vertical scanning white light interferometer - a test case? In: 11th International Colloquium on Surfaces, 2-3 February 2004, Chemnitz, Germany.

Leach, R K; Cui, Z*; Lewis, A; Singleton, L* (2004) Standardisation of microsystems technology: completion of the MEMSTAND project. MST News, 1 (Februa). pp. 39-41.

Leach, R K; Harris, P M (2004) Uncertain about surfaces? [surface texture measurement]. Qual. Today (Februa). pp. 24-25.

Leach, R K; Murphy, J (2004) The design of co-ordinate measuring probe for characterising truly three-dimensional micro-structures. In: 4th euspen International Conference, 31 May 2004 - 2 June 2004, Glasgow, UK.

Leach, R K; Murphy, J; Wilson, A (2004) Design of a co-ordinate measuring probing system for characterising three-dimensional micro-structures. NPL Report. CBTLM 30

Leach, R K; Oldfield, S; Awan, S A; Blackburn, J; Williams, J M (2004) Design of a bi-directional electrostatic actuator for realising nanonewton to micronewton forces. NPL Report. DEPC-EM 001

Lee-Bennett, I*; Leach, R K (2004) Metrology for microsystems - characterisation of a new broadband interferometer. In: 4th euspen International Conference, 31 May 2004 - 2 June 2004, Glasgow, UK.

Leggett, G (2004) Inter-laboratory odour measurement: an olfactometry proficiency testing scheme. In: Environmental Odour Management International Conference, 17-19 November 2004, Cologne.

Letchumanan, V; Gill, P; Riis, E*; Sinclair, A G (2004) Optical ramsey spectroscopy of a single trapped 88Sr+ ion. Phys. Rev. A, At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 70. 033419

Lodeiro, M J; Stewart, M; Cain, M G (2004) A round-robin to measure the direct piezoelectric coefficient using the Berlincourt method. NPL Report. DEPC-MPR 008

Lord, J D (2004) Characterisation of high volume fraction MMCs Part I: mechanical properties. NPL Report. DEPC-MN 005

Lord, J D (2004) Characterisation of high volume fraction MMCs part II: thermal properties. NPL Report. DEPC-MN 006

Lord, J D (2004) Measuring the Poissin's ratio of fibre reinforced metal composites. NPL Report. DEPC-MN 008

Lowe, D; Machin, G (2004) High-temperature fixed-points at the National Physical Laboratory. In: SICE 2004 Annual Conference, 4-6 August 2004, Sapporo, Japan.

M

MacMahon, D; Pearce, A; Harris, P M (2004) Convergence of techniques for the evaluation of discrepant data. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 60 (2-4). pp. 275-282.

MacMahon, T D (2004) United Kingdom Nuclear Science Forum progress report. Data studies during 2001 and 2002. NPL Report. CAIR 10

Maher, R C*; Cohen, L F*; Etchegoin, P*; Hartigan, H J N; Brown, R J C; Milton, M J T (2004) Stokes/anti-stokes anomalies under surface enhanced Raman scattering conditions. J. Chem. Phys., 120 (24). pp. 11746-11753.

Maher, R C*; Dalley, M*; Le Ru, E C*; Cohen, L F*; Etchegoin, P G*; Hartigan, H; Brown, R J C; Milton, M J T (2004) Physics of single molecule fluctuations in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy active liquids. J. Chem. Phys., 121 (18). pp. 8901-8910.

Margolis, H S; Barwood, G P; Huang, G; Klein, H A; Lea, S N; Szymaniec, K; Gill, P (2004) Hertz-level measurement of the optical clock frequency in a single 88Sr+ ion. Science, 306 (5700). pp. 1355-1358.

Margolis, H S; Huang, G; Lea, S N; Barwood, G P; Klein, H A; Gill, P (2004) Comparison of two femtosecond optical frequency combs at NPL. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

Maxwell, A S (2004) Comparison of coating adhesion values obtained from ASTM D4541 and ASTM C633 pull-off tests. NPL Report. DEPC-MPR 010

Maxwell, A S; Owen-Jones, S; Jennett, N M (2004) Measurement of Young's modulas and Poisson's ratio of thin coatings using impact excitation and nano-indentation. Rev. Sci. Insrum., 75 (4). pp. 970-975.

Maxwell, A S; Turnbull, A (2004) Influence of small fluctuating loads on environment stress cracking of polymers. Polym. Test., 23. pp. 419-422.

McCartney, L N (2004) Effect of mixed mode loading on ply crack development in laminated composites: theory and application. NPL Report. MATC(A)167

McEvoy, H C; Simpson, R; Machin, G (2004) New blackbody standard for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic ear thermometers at the NPL, UK. Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 5405 (1). pp. 54-60.

Mendels, D A (2004) Ball-indentation of multi-layered foils. NPL Report. DEPC-MN 009

Merewood, P (2004) A guide to power flux density and field strength measurement. Technical Report. Institute of Measurement and Control / NPL.

Miller, P; Tian, Z (2004) Implementation of a spherical near-field range at NPL. In: IEE Technical Seminar on Antenna Measurements and SAR (AMS 2004), 25-26 May 2004, Loughborough University, UK.

Milton, M J T (2004) Remote gas sensing - Overview. In: Encylopedia of Analytical Science (second edition). Elsevier. ISBN 0127641009

Milton, M J T (2004) Remote gas sensing: integrated-path remote sensing. In: Encylopedia of Analytical Science (second edition). Elsevier. ISBN 0127641009

Milton, M J T (2004) Remote gas sensing: range-resolved remote sensing. In: Encylopedia of Analytical Science (second edition). Elsevier. ISBN 0127641009

Milton, M J T; Vargha, G; Brown, A S (2004) From normalisation to harmonisation: new methods for reducing the variability in GC analysis of natural gas. In: 3rd International Gas Analysis Symposium, 6-8 October 2004, Amsterdam, Neatherlands.

Milton, M J T; Wang, J (2004) High-accuracy gas analysis by IDMS. In: 3rd International Gas Analysis Symposium, 6-8 October 2004, Amsterdam, Neatherlands.

Milton, M J T; Woods, P T (2004) Demonstrating the traceability of gas standards in europe for ambient air quality, natural gas analysis and motor vehicle emissions. In: 2004 Pittsburge Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy (PITTCON), March 2004, Chicago, USA.

Milton, M J T; Woods, P T; Nettleton, D H (2004) Requirements of EU directives for gas analysis through ISO 17025 and traceability to National Metrology Institutes. In: 2004 National Conference of Standards Laboratories (NCSLI), July 2004, Salt lake City, USA.

Morgan, A G; Instone, I C*; Ridler, N M; Thompson, R P (2004) Comparing Internet-enabled VNA measurements with primary national standards. In: 63rd ARFTG Conference Digest, 11 June 2004, Fort Worth, TX, USA.

Morrell, R; Ford, D A*; Harris, K* (2004) Caculations of modulus in different directions for single-crystal alloys. NPL Report. DEPC-MN 004

N

Nelson, L J*; Bowen, C R*; Stevens, R*; Cain, M G; Stewart, M (2004) Evaluation of high field response of fine scale piezoelectric fibres. Integrated Ferroelectrics, 63. pp. 41-47.

Nunn, J W; Banks, J P; Chunnilall, C J; Saunders, S R J (2004) Factors affecting fluorescence of thermally grown oxide in the presence of a thermal barrier coating. NPL Report. DEPC-MPE 006

Nurgaliev, T*; Cohen, L F*; Purnell, A*; Hao, L; Gallop, J C (2004) Surface resistance measurements of HTS films placed inside a cavity with a puck resonator. Physica C, 403. pp. 276-282.

O

Osgerby, S (2004) Measurement of the creep performance of coatings used in gas turbines. NPL Report. DEPC-MN 003

Ovchinnikov, Y B (2004) A multimode waveguide interferometer. In: Focus on laser and electro-optics research. Nova Science Publishers, New York.

Owen, D* (2004) Good practice guide to phase noise measurement. Measurement Good Practice Guide. 68

P

Palmans, H; Thomas, R A S; Simon, M; Duane, S; Kacperek, A*; DuSautoy, A R; Verhaegen, F* (2004) A small-body portable graphite calorimeter for dosimetry in low-energy clinical proton beams. Phys. Med. Biol., 49 (16). pp. 3737-3749.

Payne, R (2004) Uncertainties associated with the use of a sound level meter. NPL Report. DQL-AC 002

Pearce, J A D (2004) Characterisation of two new ionisation chamber types for use in reference electron dosimetry in the UK. NPL Report. DQL-RD 001

Peggs, G N; Lewis, A J; Leach, R K (2004) Measuring the metrology gap: three dimensional metrology at the mesoscopic level. J. Manuf. Process., 6 (1). pp. 117-124.

Pegrum, H M; Woolliams, E R; Fox, N P; Sibley, A D (2004) NPL measurement report for the UV scale 200 - 350 nm. NPL Report. DQL-OR 008

Petrie, H*; King, N*; Tomlins, P (2004) Investigations into sensation of 'softness' and perception of the tactile properties of 'soft touch' thermoplastic elastomers. NPL Report. DEPC-MPR 017

Pointer, M R (2004) Measuring colour rendering - a new approach II. NPL Report. DQL-OR 007

R

Ridler, N M; Salter, M J; Fletcher, S H (2004) Comparison of type-N coaxial power splitter measurements from 1 GHz to 18 GHz. Technical Report.

Roberts, N J; Bartlett, D T*; Hager, L G*; Jones, L N; Molinos, C*; Tanner, R J*; Taylor, G C; Thomas, D J (2004) Angle dependence of response characteristics of neutron survey instruments. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 110 (1-4). pp. 187-193.

Roberts, N J; Jones, L N (2004) Investigation of the implications of 250Cf and 248Cm in 252Cf neutron sources. NPL Report. DQL-RN 005

Roberts, N J; Tagziria, H; Thomas, D J (2004) Determination of the effective centres of the NPL long counters. NPL Report. DQL-RN 004

Robinson, I A (2004) Redefining the kilogram. Phys. World, 17 (5). pp. 31-35.

Robinson, I A; Kibble, B P (2004) Progress on the NPL watt balance: alignment and measurements. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

Robinson, S P (2004) Final report for key comparison CCAUV.W-K1: calibration of hydrophones in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 500 kHz. NPL Report. DQL-AC 009

Roebuck, B (2004) Rapid prototype testing of multicomponent metallics. NPL Report. MATC(MN)55

Roebuck, B; Bennett, E G (2004) WC/Co Hardmetals Rockwell - Vickers hardness comparison. NPL Report. DEPC-MN 011

Roebuck, B; Bennett, E G (2004) An assessment of toughness tests for hardmetals. In: PM 2004 - World Conference on PM, October 2004, Vienna, Austria.

Roebuck, B; Brewin, P* (2004) EHMG WINTEREV toughness testing of harmetals. Powder Metall., 47 (1). pp. 15-16.

Roebuck, B; Brooks, M; Gee, M G (2004) Load cell ringing in high rate compression tests. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 1-2. pp. 205-210.

Roebuck, B; Cox, D C*; Reed, R C* (2004) An innovative device for the mechanical testing of miniature specimens of the superalloys. In: Seven Springs Superalloy Conference, September 2004, Penn, USA.

Roebuck, B; Phatak, C; Birks-Agnew, I (2004) A comparison of the linear intercept and equivalent circle methods for grain size measurement in WC/Co hardmetals. NPL Report. MATC(A)149

Roebuck, B; Phatak, C*; Birks-Agnew, I* (2004) A comparison of the linear intercept and equivalent circle methods for grain size measurement in WC/Co hardmetals. In: Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, June 2004, Chicargo, USA.

Rogers, L J (2004) Report on the long-term stability of filter radiometers developed in the previous (98-01) optical programme. NPL Report. DQL-OR 001

S

Schiffmann, D; Butterfield, D M; Yardley, R E; Knight, A; Windsor, S A; Jones, C* (2004) Val-CiD Appendix A: CD spectroscopy: an inter-laboratory study. NPL Report. DQL-AS 009

Scorer, T*; Perkin, M; Buckley, M* (2004) Weighing in the pharmaceutical industry. Measurement Good Practice Guide. 70

Seah, M P (2004) Intercomparison of silicon dioxide thickness measurements made by multiple techniques - the route to accuracy. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 22 (4). pp. 1564-1571.

Seah, M P (2004) Summary of ISO/TC 201 standard: XXI, ISO 21270:2004 - surface chemical analysis - X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectrometers - linearity of intensity scale. Surf. Interface Anal., 36. pp. 1645-1646.

Seah, M P (2004) Summary of ISO/TC 201 standard: XXI. ISO 21270: 2004 - surface chemical analysis - X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectrometers - linearity of intensity scale. Surf. Interface Anal., 36. pp. 1645-1646.

Seah, M P; Spencer, S J; Bensebaa, F*; Vickridge, I*; Danzebrink, H*; Krumrey, M*; Gross, T*; Oesterle, W*; Wendler, E*; Rheinlander, B*; Azuma, Y*; Kojima, I*; Suzuki, N*; Suzuki, M*; Tanuma, S*; Moon, D W*; Lee, H J*; Hyun Mo Cho*,, ; Chen, H Y*; Wee, A T S*; Osipowicz, T*; Pan, J S*; Jordaan, W A*; Hauert, R*; Klotz, U*; van der Marel, C*; Verheijen, M*; Tamminga, Y*; Jeynes, C*; Baily, P*; Biswas, S*; Falke, U*; Nguyen, N V*; Chandler-Horowitz, D*; Ehrstein, J R*; Muller, D*; Dura, J A* (2004) Critical review of the current status of thickness measurements for ultrathin SiO2 on Si Part V: results of a CCQM pilot study. Surf. Interface Anal., 36 (9). pp. 1269-1303.

Seah, M P; Spencer, S J; Bensebaa, F*; Vickridge, I*; Danzebrink, H*; Krumrey, M*; Gross, T*; Oesterle, W*; Wendler, E*; Rheinländer, B*; Azuma, Y*; Kojima, I*; Suzuki, N*; Suzuki, M*; Tanuma, S*; Moon, D W*; Lee, H J*; Hyan Mo Cho*,, ; Chen, H Y*; Wee, A T S*; Osipowicz, T*; Pan, J S*; Jordaan, W A*; Hauert, R*; Klotz, U*; van der Marel, C*; Verheijen, M*; Tamminga, Y*; Jeynes, C*; Bailey, P*; Biswas, S*; Falke, U*; Nguyen, N V*; Chandler-Horowitz, D*; Ehrstein, J R*; Muller, D*; Dura, J A* (2004) Critical review of the current status of thickness measurements for ultrathin SiO2 on Si Part V: results of a CCQM pilot study. Surf. Interface Anal., 36. pp. 1269-1303.

Severn, I (2004) The assignment of uncertainties to mass standards at NPL. NPL Report. MATC(A)166

Shaw, R M; Sims, G D (2004) Through-thickness tensile testing of polymer matrix composites. NPL Report. DEPC-MN 007

Sherwood, T R (2004) EUROMET Project 401 - harmonisation of audiometry measurements within Europe. NPL Report. DQL-AC 003

Sherwood, T R; Barham, R G (2004) A review of the relative technical and practical merits of the IEC reference coupler and artificial ear and their future role in pure-tone audiometry. NPL Report. DQL-AC 004

Simmons, D; Jobling, B; Payne, R (2004) Acoustic parameters and uncertainties associated with determining sound power level in hemi-anechoic rooms. NPL Report. DQL-AC 007

Slemr, J*; Slemr, F*; D'Souza, H; Partridge, R (2004) Study of the relative response factors of various gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector systems for measurement of C2-C9 hydrocarbons in air. Journal of Chromatography A, 1061. pp. 75-84.

Stevens, R F (2004) Cross-talk in 3D displays. NPL Report. CETM 56

Szymaniec, K; Chalupczak, W; Whibberley, P B; Lea, S N; Henderson, D (2004) Evaluation of NPL-CSF1 primary frequency standard. In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurement (CPEM) 2004, 27 June - 2 July 2004, London, UK.

T

Tanner, R J*; Bartlett, D T*; Hager, L G*; Jones, L N; Molinos, C*; Roberts, N J; Taylor, G C; Thomas, D J (2004) Practical implications of neutron survey instrument performance. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 110 (1-4). pp. 763-767.

Tantra, R; McCabe, A*; Bailey, M; Knight, A; Smith, E* (2004) Comparable Raman spectroscopy across different instruments and excitation wavelengths. NPL Report. DQL-AS 012

Taylor, G C; Bentley, R D*; Horwood, N A; Hunter, R*; Iles, R H*; Jones, J B L*; Powell, D*; Thomas, D J (2004) TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 110 (1-4). pp. 381-386.

Taylor, G C; Thomas, D J; Bennett, A (2004) A realistic field facility to simulate reactor spectra. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 110 (1-4). pp. 111-115.

Theobald, P; Thompson, A D; Robinson, S P; Barham, R G; Preston, R C; Lepper, P*; Swift, C*; Tyrer, J*; Greated, C*; Campbell, M*; Schlike, T*; Yuebing, W (2004) Fundamental standards for acoustics based on optical methods - final report. NPL Report. DQL-AC 001

Theobald, P; Thompson, A D; Robinson, S P; Preston, R C; Lepper, P*; Swift, C*; Yuebing, W*; Tyrer, J* (2004) Fundamental standards for acoustics based on optical methods - phase three report for sound in water. NPL Report. CAIR 9

Theocharous, E; Ishii, J*; Fox, N P (2004) Absolute linearity measurements on HgCdTe detectors in the infrared region. Appl. Opt., 43 (21). pp. 4182-4188.

Theocharous, E; Wareham, E M* (2004) Ultra-high performance photodetection systems for radiometric applications. Meas. Sci. Technol., 15. pp. 1216-1221.

Thomas, D J (2004) Neutron spectrometry for radiation protection. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 110 (1-4). pp. 141-149.

Tomlins, P (2004) The development of a new model for the Raman gain spectrum in silica optical fibres. NPL Report. DEM-EM 002

Tomlins, P; Wicks, M C (2004) Characterisation of a fibre optic Raman amplifier. NPL Report. DEM-EM 003

Turnbull, A; Nimmo, W (2004) Methodology for determining the resistance of welded corrosion resistant alloys to stress corrosion using the four-point bend method. NPL Report. DEPC-MPE 007

Turnbull, A; Zhou, S (2004) Pit to crack transition in stress corrosion cracking of a steam turbine disc steel. Corros. Sci., 46. pp. 1239-1264.

Turnbull, A; Zhou, S; Hinds, G (2004) Stress corrosion cracking of steam turbine disc steel - measurement of the crack-tip potential. Corros. Sci., 46 (1). pp. 193-211.

U

Urquhart, J M; Brown, C S (2004) The effect of uncertainty in heat transfer data on the simulation of polymer processing. NPL Report. DEPC-MPR 001

W

Webster, S A; Blythe, P E; Hosaka, K; Barwood, G P; Gill, P (2004) Systematics shifts of the 467 nm electric octupole transition in 171 Yb+. NPL Report. CBTLM 31

Wickham, M; Zou, L; Hunt, C (2004) Developing a stress screening regime for isotropic electrically conductive adhesives. NPL Report. DEPC-MPR 005

Williams, R G; Ballard, G (2004) An evaluation of the effect of high performance spacer bars on the thermal performance of a range of window systems. NPL Report. DEPC-TH 001

Williams, R G; Ballard, G (2004) An investigation of measurement procedures needed to determine thermal transmittance of deep structures using both horizontal and vertical heat flow. NPL Report. DEPC-TH 002

Witzani, J*; Bjerke, H*; Bochud, F*; Csete, I*; Denoziere, M*; de Vries, W*; Ennow, K*; Grindborg, J E*; Hourdakis, C*; Kosunen, A*; Kramer, H M*; Pernicka, F*; Sander, T (2004) Calibration of dosemeters used in mammography with different X-ray qualities. EUROMET project no. 526. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 108 (1). pp. 33-45.

Witzani, J*; Bjerke, H*; Bochud, F*; Csete, I*; Denoziere, M*; de Vries, W*; Ennow, K*; Grindborg, J E*; Hourdakis, C*; Kosunen, A*; Kramer, H M*; Pernicka, F*; Sander, T (2004) Calibration of dosemeters used in mammography with different X-ray qualities. EUROMET project no. 526. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 108 (1). pp. 33-45.

Woods, M J*; Baker, M (2004) Establishing equivalence for activity standards of short-lived radionuclides using NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 60. pp. 499-504.

Woods, M J*; Collins, S M; Woods, S A (2004) Evaluation of half-life data. NPL Report. CAIR 8

Woolliams, E R; Khlevnoy, B B*; Harrison, N J; Montgomery, S R; Lowe, D H; Fox, N P; Ogarev, S A*; Khromchenko, V B*; Sapritsky, V I* (2004) Measurements of the melting and freezing plateaus of re-C eutectic fixed-point blackbodies. In: 9th International Symposium on Temperature and thermal measurements in Industry ans Science (Tempmeko), 2004, Croatia.

Wright, L (2004) Visualisation, uncertainties and continuous modelling. NPL Report. CMSC 39/04

Y

Yan, T*; Theobald, P; Jones, B E* (2004) A conical piezoelectric transducer with integral sensor as a self-calibrating acoustic emission energy source. Ultrasonics, 42. pp. 431-438.

Z

Zhang, B; Redgrove, J; Clarke, J D (2004) A transient method for total emissivity estimation. Int. J. Thermophysics, 25 (2). pp. 423-438.

Zou, L; Brewin, A; Hunt, C (2004) Guidelines for measuring anionic contamination of Printer Circuit Boards (PCB) and Circuit Assemblies (PCA) using ion chromatography. Measurement Good Practice Guide. 76

Zou, L; Lea, D; Hunt, C (2004) Solderability testing of surface mount components and PCB pads. Measurement Good Practice Guide. 66

This list was generated on Thu Nov 14 10:25:38 2019 GMT.