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Number of items: 230.

A

Abbas, F*; Davis, L E*; Gallop, J C (1994) Ultra-high-Q resonators for low-noise, microwave signal generation using sapphire buffer layers and superconducting thin films. Supercond. Sci. Technol., 7. 495 -501

Alexander, M J; Salter, M J; Gentle, D G; Holland, K P (1994) Advances in measurement methods and reduction of measurement uncertainties associated with antenna calibration. IEE Proc. A, Sci. Meas. Technol., 141 (4). 283 - 286

Allison, J M*; Birch, K P; Crowder, J G* (1994) Precise determination of refractometric parameters for anesthetic agent vapors. Appl. Opt., 33 (13). 2459 -2464

Allison, J M*; Birch, K P; Crowder, J G* (1994) The evaluation of interactions between anaesthetic agent vapours and carrier gases by laser refractometry. Phys. Med. Biol., 39 (4). 751 - 759

Angliss, R F (1994) Changes to the X-ray air kerma primary standards in the period 1 January 1970 to 31 December 1993. NPL Report. RSA(EXT)50

Ascroft, J T (1994) A 3.5mm coaxial calorimeter. IEE Colloq. Dig., 042. 1/1 - 1/3

B

Baines, J; Frehill, C*; Raine, K (1994) Fiber diameter from the backscattered light pattern. (NIST Special Publication) Technical digest: symposium on optical fiber measurements, 864. 125 - 128

Banks, J P; Gohil, D D; Evans, H E*; Hall, D J; Saunders, S R J (1994) The room-temperature mechanical properties of alumina scales. In: Coutsouradis, D, et al, eds. Materials for advanced power engineering: part 2. Klewer Academic Publishers, pp. 1543-1552.

Bannister, D J (1994) Verification of on-wafer S-parameter measurements. In: IEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symposium, , WMHF Workshop Notes, accuracy in on-wafer measurements, 28 May 1994, San Diego, California, USA.

Bardell, A G; Zieba, K J; Böttger,R*,, ; Klein, H* (1994) EUROMAT Project No.221 final report: bilateral intercomparison of the neutron emission rate of a 252Cf spontaneous fission source between the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK. and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany. NPL Report. RSA(EXT) 47

Barham, R G (1994) The NPL laser pistonphone. J. Low Freq. Noise Vib., 12 (2). pp. 36-38.

Barry, T I; Dinsdale, A T (1994) High temperature corrosion and carbon deposition phenomena on stainless steels. Mater. Sci. Technol., 10. 1090 - 1095

Barwood, G P; Edwards, C S; Gill, P; Klein, H A; Rowley, W R C (1994) Laser cooling and probing of a trapped strontium ion using all-solid-state lasers. AIP Conf. Proc., 290. pp. 35-37.

Bellingham, J R; Milton, M J T; Woods, P T; Passant, N R*; Poll, A J*; Couling, S*; Marlowe, I T*; Woodfield, M*; Garland, J*; Lee, D S* (1994) The UK methane emissions inventory: A scoping study on the use of ambient measurements to reduce uncertainties. NPL Report. DQM 98

Bennett, E G (1994) Film microscopy for materials characterisation and measurement. Proc. Royal Microscopical Soc., 29 (5). 311 - 313

Bennett, E G (1994) Interference film microscopy for materials characterisation and measurement. Proceedings RMS, 29 (5). pp. 311-313.

Berry, B F (1994) A comparison of 3 methods for the quantification of the onset-rate of the noise of low-altitude military aircraft. In: Proc. NATO.CCMS symposium on aircraft noise receiver technology, 16 - 20 May 1994, Baltimore..

Berry, B F; Porter, N D (1994) The evaluation of acoustic features in industrial noise. In: Internoise 94, 29 - 31 August 1994, Yokohama, Japan.

Bevan, N; Macleod, M (1994) Usability assessment and measurement. In: Kelly, M, ed. The management and measurement of software quality. London: Ashgate Technical/ Gower Press.

Bevan, N; Macleod, M (1994) Usability measurement in context. Behav. Inf. Technol., 13 (1-2). pp. 132-145.

Bich, W*; Cox, M G; Harris, P M (1994) Uncertainty modelling in mass comparisons. Metrologia, 30 (5). pp. 495-502.

Birch, J R (1994) Systematic errors in dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopy. NPL Report. DES 133

Birch, J R; Moss, D G; Szwarnowski, S; Screen, J R; Wallace, A (1994) A comparison between in-waveguide and free space power measurement standards at 60 and 94 GHz. NPL Report. DES 137

Boutillon, M*; Coursey, B M*; Hohlfeld, K*; Owen, B; Rogers, D W O* (1994) Comparison of primary water absorbed dose standards. IAEA Publication STI/PUB/930. 95 - 111

Breuer, H*; Dean, G; Tiba, H*; Shastri, R* (1994) International standards for the acquisition and presentation of comparable data on plastics. In: Proc. SPE Challenging the status quo in design, 1994.

Broughton, W R; Nimmo, W; Sims, G D (1994) Plate twist and V-notched beam - complementary test methods for shear properties. In: ECCM-CTS - 2nd European Conference on Composite Testing and Standardisation, September 1994, Hamburg, Germany.

Broughton, W R; Sims, G D (1994) An overview of through-thickness test methods for polymer matrix composites. NPL Report. DMM(A)148

Brown, C (1994) Measuring viscosity to optimise thermoset processing. Mater. World (Januar). p. 16.

Brown, C S; Allen, C R G (1994) The measurement of viscosity by capillary rheometry: dwell time effects. NPL Report. DMM(A)140

Burns, D T; McEwen, M R; Williams, A J (1994) An NPL absorbed-dose calibration service for electron-beam radiotherapy. IAEA Publication STI/PUB/930. 61 - 71

Burns, D T; McEwen, M R; Williams, A J (1994) The NPL standard of absorbed dose to water for electron-beam radiotherapy. Phys. Med. Biol., 39a (Octobe). 796 (abstract only)

Burns, J E (1994) Absorbed dose calibrations in high-energy photon beams at the National Physical Laboratory: conversion procedure. Phys. Med. Biol., 39 (10). 1555 - 1575

Butler, B P; Cox, M G; Forbes, A B (1994) The reconstruction of workpiece surfaces from probe centre data. In: Design and application of curves and surfaces. Oxford, Clarendon Press, pp. 99-116.

Butler, B P; Forbes, A B; Harris, P M (1994) Algorithms for geometric tolerance assessment. NPL Report. DITC 228/94

C

Cartmell, I (1994) Evaluation of waveguide-to-coaxial-line adaptors at frequencies up to 40 GHz. In: 21st Automated RF and Microwave Measurements Society (ARMMS) Conference, September 1994, University of Surrey.

Cartmell, I (1994) Evaluation of waveguide-to-coaxial-line adaptors at frequencies up to 40 GHz. NPL Report. DES 134

Chakravorty, S; Allen, C R G; Brown, C S (1994) Temperature measurement of polymer melts during flow. NPL Report. DMM(A)137

Chambers, T (1994) The PEPS unified performance strategy. In: Proc. Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking of Parallel Systems, 2nd PEPS Workshop, 15 - 16 December 1994, University of Warwick.

Chattle, M V; Butler, J (1994) BIPM project: intercomparison of water triple point cells. NPL Report. QU 104

Chattle, M V; Butler, J (1994) EUROMET Project No.278: intercomparison of water triple-point cells. NPL Report. QU 101

Christmas, P (1994) Recommendations for the presentation of type-test data for radiation protection instruments used in hospitals. Technical Report.

Chu, B; McEvoy, H C; Andrews, J W (1994) The NPL reference sources of blackbody radiation. Meas. Sci. Technol., 5 (1). pp. 12-19.

Clow, P (1994) Elastic distortion calculations at NPL on LNE 200 MPa pressure balances as part of EUROMET Project 256. NPL Report. MOM 120

Clow, P (1994) Elastic distortion calculations at NPL on a PTB 400 MPa pressure balance as part of EUROMET Project 256. NPL Report. MOM 117

Cook, A; Gibbs, P A J (1994) Characterisation of surface appearance of injection moulded dough moulding compounds. NPL Report. DMM(A)106

Cumpson, P J; Seah, M P (1994) Stability of reference masses I: evidence for possible variations in the mass of reference kilograms arising from mercury contamination. Metrologia, 31. 21 - 26

Cumpson, P J; Seah, M P (1994) Stability of reference masses III: mechanism and long term effects of mercury contamination on platinum-iridium mass standards. NPL Report. DMM(A)125

Cumpson, P J; Seah, M P (1994) Stability of reference masses III: mechanism and long-term effects of mercury contamination on platinum-iridium mass standards. Metrologia, 31. pp. 375-388.

Cumpson, P J; Seah, M P (1994) Stability of reference masses IV: growth of carbonaceous contamination on platinum-iridium alloy surfaces, and its cleaning by UV/ozone treatment. NPL Report. DMM(A)126

D

Daly, D; Hutley, M C; Stevens, R F (1994) Mach-Zehnder interferometer for measuring microlenses. Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 2340. pp. 258-263.

Davies, R H; Dinsdale, A T; Gisby, J A; Hodson, S M; Ball, R G J (1994) Thermodynamic modelling using MTDATA: a description showing applications involving oxides, alloys and aqueous solutions. In: Symposium on Applications of Thermodynamics in the Synthesis and Processing of Materials, October 1994, Rosmont, IL, USA.

Davis, J A; Pearce, P R; Kirchner, D*; Ressler, H*; Hetzel, P*; Soering, A*; de Jong, G*; Baumont, F*; Veenstra, L* (1994) European two-way satellite time transfer experiments using the Intelsat (VA-F13) satellite at 307øE. In: Conference Digest on Precision Electromagnetc Measurements (CPEM), 27 June - 1 July 1994, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

De Young, J A*; Klepczynski, W*; McKinley, A*; Powell, W*; Mai, P*; Hetzel, P*; Bauch, A*; Davis, J A; Pearce, P R; Baumont, F*; Claudon, P*; Grudler, P*; de Jong, G*; Kirchner, D*; Ressler, H*; Soering, A*; Hackman, C*; Veenstra, L* (1994) Preliminary results of the international two-way time and frequency transfer experiment. In: Proc. PTTI94, December 1994, Washington.

Dean, G; Loveday, M S; Cooper, P M; Read, B E; Roebuck, B (1994) Aspects of modulus measurements. In: Materials metrology and standards for structural performance (Dyson, B F, Loveday, M S, Gee, M G, eds.). London, Chapman & Hall, pp. 150-209.

Dean, J C J; Burke, M (1994) Intercomparisons of 222Rn measurement systems in European laboratories. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, Accel. Spectrom. Detec. Assoc. Equip., A339 (1-2). 264 - 270

Dean, J C J; Burke, M (1994) An intercomparison of 222Rn measurement systems in European laboratories. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., A339. pp. 264-270.

Dortmans, L J M G*; Morrell, R; De With, G* (1994) Round robin on grain size measurement for advanced technical ceramics. In: Proc. 8th World Ceramic Congress and Forum on New Materials, 28 June - 4 July 1994, Florence, Italy.

Downs, M J; Birch, K P; Cox, M G; Nunn, J W (1994) The verification of a polarisation insensitive optical interferometer system with subnanometric capability. European Optical Society Topical Meetings Digest, 4. pp. 10-11.

Dowson, S P (1994) Calibration and verification of sound level meters and calibrators. Proc. Inst. Acoust., 16 (2). 279 -285

Dowson, S P (1994) Measurement of sound calibrator characteristics: NPL contribution to an EC intercomparison. NPL Report. RSA(EXT) 45

Drake, A E (1994) Instrument specifications - a customer's viewpoint. IEE Colloq. Dig (201). 8/1 - 8/2

Drake, A E (1994) Traceability for low level low frequency magnetic field measurements. IEE Colloq. Dig., 096. 3/1 - 3/2

Drake, A E (1994) Traceable magnetic measurements. J. Magn. Magn. Mater., 133 (1-3). 371 - 376

DuSautoy, A R (1994) UK photon-beam primary standard graphite calorimeter. In: NPL Calorimetry Workshop, 12 - 14 October 1994, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK.

Duncan, B C; Tomlins, P E (1994) MTS Adhesives Project 1: basic mechanical properties for Design Report No. 2 October 1994: measurement of strain in bulk adhesive testpieces. Technical Report.

E

Edwards, C S; Gill, P; Klein, H A; Levick, A P; Rowley, W R C (1994) Laser-cooling effects in few-ion clouds of Yb/sup +/. Appl. Phys. B, Laser and Optics, B59 (2). 179 - 185

Edwards, C S; Gill, P; Klein, H A; Levick, A P; Rowley, W R C (1994) Precision measurement of the 2S1/2(2 sps-1/2 sbs) - 2D5/2(2 sps-5/2 sbs) 411 nm transition in laser-cooled 172Yb+ (172 & + in sps) ions. In: 5th European Quantum Electronics Conference, Technical Digest, 53, 1994, Amsterdam, Holland.

Ellison, S L R*; Cox, M G; Forbes, A B; Butler, B P; Hannaby, S A; Harris, P M; Hodson, S M (1994) Development of data sets for the validation of analytical instrumentation. J. AOAC Int., 77 (3). p. 777.

F

Flowers, J L; Josephs-Franks, P W; Petley, B W (1994) Achieving high precision in NMR flux density and y'p measurements - accounting for the asymmetric line. In: 1994 Conference Digest on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 27 June - 1 July 1994, Boulder, CO, USA.

Forbes, A B (1994) Validation of software for dimensional metrology. NPL Report. DITC 225/94

Francis, P E; Cheung, W K (1994) Test method for measurement of pit propagation rates. NPL Report. DMM(A)124

G

Gee, M G (1994) Questionnaire on conditions of use, and test method requirements for actuator and sensor materials. NPL Report. DMM(A)144

Gee, M G (1994) Sensored materials. Engineering (Septem). p. 31.

Gee, M G (1994) Wear testing and ceramics. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 208 (J3). 153 - 166

Gee, M G; Jennett, N M (1994) Evaluation of the mechanical properties of tribochemical. In: Thin Films: Stresses and Mechanical Properties V Symposium, 28 November - 2 December 1994, Boston, USA.

Gee, M G; Stewart, M; McCormick, N J (1994) Comparison of different methods for the displacement-field characterisation of piezoelectric materials. In: Electroceramics IV, 4th International conference on electronic ceramics and applications, 1994.

Gibbs, P A J (1994) Ultrasonic cure measurements during the processing of an unsaturated polyester dough moulding compound. British Plastics Federation Composite Congress, 293 (8). pp. 7-16.

Gill, P; Klein, H A; Levick, A P; Roberts, M; Rowley, W R C; Taylor, P (1994) A search for the 2S1/2 (2 sps - 1/2sbs) - 2F7/2 (2 sps -7/2sbs) 467 nm transition in laser cooled 172Yb+. (172 & + sps). In: 14th International Conference Digest on Atomic Physics, 1994, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Griffin, E J (1994) Calibrating a VANA with a slightly lossy beadless coaxial standard line. Electron. Lett., 30 (19). pp. 1608-1609.

Griffiths, A J; Hutchings, R B; Turnbull, A (1994) Hydrogen uptake and transport in low alloy steels. In: Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Interaction of steels with hydrogen in petroleum industry pressure vessels and pipeline service, October 1994, Vienna.

Griffiths, A J; Turnbull, A (1994) Time dependent factors in the corrosion fatigue testing of cathodically protected low alloy steels. In: Proc. Structural Materials in Marine Environments, May 1994, London.

Griffiths, A J; Turnbull, A (1994) An investigation of the electrochemical polarisation behaviour of 6061 A1 metal matrix composites. Corros. Sci., 36 (1). 23 - 35

H

Haigh, N R*; Jones, T C E (1994) The development of an optical fibre attenuation standard. In: Symposium on Optical Fibre Measurements, 1994. Technical Digest, September 1994, Boulder, USA.

Hale, P D*; Humphreys, D A; Gifford, A D (1994) Photodetector frequency response measurements at NIST, US and NPL, UK: preliminary results of a standards laboratory comparison. Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 2149. pp. 345-356.

Head, D I (1994) EUROMET intercomparison of mercury triple point cells at NPL. NPL Report. QU 99

Heaton, J A (1994) Specification for a secondary standard dosemeter for diagnostic or mammographic radiology. NPL Report. RSA(EXT) 52

Hedley, R P*; Danyluk, P*; Chandler, M J*; Paton-Walsh, C; Woods, M J; Sephton, J P (1994) Problems, and measurement solutions developed, in the characterisation and use of ISO Class 1 photon-emitting reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., A339. p. 253.

Hekkenberg, R T*; Reibold, R*; Zeqiri, B (1994) Development of standard measurement methods for essential properties of ultrasound therapy equipment. Ultrasound Med. Biol., 20 (1). pp. 83-98.

Henderson, L C A; Williams, J M; Hartland, A (1994) Research in support of calibration services in DC voltage and resistance at NPL, UK. In: Proc. XIII IMEKO World Congress, September 1994.

Hodgetts, T E (1994) Random measurement uncertainties of complex numbers; or, "Student's t" in two dimensions. In: 21st Automated RF and Microwave Measurements Society (ARMMS) Conference, September 1994, University of Surrey.

Hossain, K (1994) Testing and evaluation of advanced materials. Int. J. Mater. Prod. Technol., 9. 354 - 393

Hughes, E B (1994) Measurement of the linear thermal expansion coefficient of gauge blocks by interferometry. Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 2088. 179 - 189

Hunt, J B; Lewis, V E; Rossiter, M J (1994) British Committee on Radiation Units and Measurements Report for the period January 1988 to December 1993. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 55 (Septem). 65 - 70

Hunt, R A (1994) Digital centring of axicon images. NPL Report. MOM 119

Hutley, M C; Hunt, R; Stevens, R (1994) The Moire magnifier. Pure Appl. Opt., 3. pp. 133-142.

I

Ide, J P (1994) Definitions of some of the terms in common use with ANAs. Technical Report.

Ide, J P (1994) Estimating the electrical compatibility of mechanically compatible connectors. Microw. Eng. Eur., 43 (Aug/Se). 39 - 40

Ide, J P (1994) Experimental verification of Z0 renormalisation to 50 Ohms. In: 20th Automated RF and Microwave Measurements Society ARMMS Conference, 28-29 March 1994, Nottingham, UK.

J

Jarvis, D R (1994) The calibration of sound intensity instruments. Acustica, 80. pp. 103-114.

Jarvis, D R (1994) The calibration of sound intensity instruments. Acustica, 80. pp. 103-114.

Jerome, S M; Perkin, E M E; Lucas, S E M; Woods, M J; Dean, J C J (1994) Environmental radioactivity intercomparison 1993. NPL Report. RSA(EXT) 49

Jerome, S M; Woods, M J; de Felice, P*; Pona, C*; de Sanoit, J*; Dersch, R* (1994) Development of a range of y-ray emitting radioactive spiked reference materials for environmental monitoring. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, Accel. Spectrom. Detec. Assoc. Equip.,, 339 (1-2). pp. 55-60.

Jones, G D; Ridler, N M (1994) ANAMET comparison of type-N VSWR measurements. In: 20th Automated RF and Microwave Measurements Society ARMMS Conference, 28-29 March 1994, Nottingham, UK.

K

Kilby, G J; Warner, F L (1994) The accurate measurement of attenuation and phase. IEE Colloq. Dig., 042. 5/1-5/4

Kilby, G J; Warner, F L* (1994) The accurate measurement of high attenuators at radio frequencies. In: Conference Digest on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), 27 June - 1 July 1994, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Klepczynski, W*; Davis, J A; Kirchner, D*; de Jong, G*; Baumont, F*; Hetzel, P*; Soering, A*; Hackman, C*; Granveaud, M*; Lewandowski, W* (1994) Comparisons of two-way satellite time transfer and GPS time transfer during the Intelsat field trial. In: Proc. PTTI94, December 1994, Washington.

Knight, D J E (1994) Laser frequency standards in the near infrared, coinciding with the optical fiber transmission bands. Laser Phys., 4 (2). 345 - 348

Kowalewski, Z L*; Hayhurst, D R*; Dyson, B F (1994) Mechanisms-based creep constitutive equations for an aluminium alloy. J. Strain Anal., 29 (4). 309 - 316

L

Lea, C (1994) Feasible cleaning. Electron. Manuf. Test, 10. 22 - 24

Lewis, A (1994) Measurement of length, surface form and thermal expansion coefficient of length bars up to 1.5 m using multiple-wavelength phase-stepping interferometry. Meas. Sci. Technol., 5. 694 - 703

Loveday, M S (1994) Reference materials for mechanical testing and uncertainty of measurement. In: 2nd Eurolab Int. Symp. Testing for the year 2000, 1994, Florence, Italy.

M

Machin, G; Johnson, B C*; Gibson, C*; Rusby, R L (1994) Intercomparison of the ITS-90 radiance temperature scales of the National Physical Laboratory (U.K.) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., 99 (6). 731 - 736

Macleod, M (1994) Usability evaluation in practice. Interfaces - the Newsletter of the British HCI Group (A specialist group of the British Computer Society) (25). 2 - 8.

Macleod, M (1994) Usability in context: improving quality of use. In: Proc. International Ergonomics Association 4th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management, May 29 - June 1 1994, Stockholm, Sweden.

Macleod, M; Kirakowski, J* (1994) Usability testing in context. In: Tutorial notes, BCS HCI Conference, August 1994, Glasgow, UK.

Makepeace, J L; Clark, F E*; Picolo, J L*; Coursol, N*; Gunther, E*; Unterweger, M P* (1994) Intercomparison of internal gas proportional counting of 85Kr and 3H. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., A339. pp. 343-348.

Marshall, M*; Thomas, D J; Perks, C A*; Naismith, O F (1994) Radiation quantities: significance of the angular and energy distribution of the radiation field. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 54 (3-4). 239 - 248

McCartney, L N (1994) The prediction of non-uniform cracking in biaxially loaded cross-ply laminates. NPL Report. DMM(A)142

McEwen, M R; Burns, D T; Williams, A J (1994) Progress on the NPL graphite calorimeter for electron beam radiotherapy. In: NPL Calorimetry Workshop, 12 - 14 October 1994, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK.

Mills, K C; Brooks, R F (1994) Measurements of thermophysical properties in high temperature melts. Mater. Sci. Eng.A, Struct. Mater., Prop. Microstruct., Process., A178 (1-2). 77 - 81

Mills, K C; Brooks, R F; Richardson, M J; Quested, P N (1994) Measurements of the physical properties of alloys. In: Morita Symposium, 12 - 13 October 1994, Osaka, Japan.

Mills, K C; Quested, P N (1994) Measurements of the physical properties of liquid metals. In: Proc. 1994 Int. Symp. Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, September 1994, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Milton, M J; Gardiner, T D; Chourdakis, G; Woods, P T (1994) Injection seeding of an infrared optical parametric oscillator with tunable diode laser. Opt. Lett., 19 (4). pp. 281-283.

Milton, M J T (1994) Dial and long-path measurements of pollution. In: 17th International Laser Radar Conference - Abstracts of Papers, 25-29 July 1994, Sendai, Japan.

Milton, M J T; Gardiner, T; Chourdakis, G*; Woods, P T (1994) Injection seeding of an infrared optical parametric oscillator with a tunable diode laser. Opt. Lett., 19 (4). pp. 281-283.

Milton, M J T; Gardiner, T D; Woods, P T (1994) A tunable injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator between 10526 µm and 10578 µm. Proceedings of the Optical Society of America., 20. pp. 451-453.

Moretti, C (1994) The long-term stability of standards for X-ray dosimetry. NPL news (374). 12 - 14

Moretti, C; Angliss, R F; O'Neil, P J (1994) The long-term stability of the NE type 2561 therapy-level secondary standard ionisation chamber. IAEA Publication STI/PUB/930. 131 - 139

Moretti, C; Heaton, J A; Stucki, G*; Duane, S (1994) Intercomparison of the United Kingdom and the Swiss primary standards of X-ray exposure and air kerma for 50 kV X-rays. IAEA Publication STI/PUB/930. 119 - 129

Morrell, R (1994) Toughness of hard materials: philosophy, methods, results. Cer. Acta, 6 (2-3). 5 - 17

Mossavati, R; Gallop, J C; Petley, B W; Wall, C F (1994) Cryogenic hydrogen maser. In: 19th Biennial Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, June 1994, Boulder, Co, USA.

Muller, J W*; Lewis, V E; Smith, D; Taylor, J G V*; Winkler, G* (1994) Particle counting in radioactivity measurements. Technical Report.

N

Nagl, M M*; Evans, W T*; Hall, D J; Saunders, S R J (1994) An in situ investigation of the tensile failure of oxide scales. Oxid. Met., 42 (5/6). 431 - 449

Nagl, M M*; Saunders, S R J; Guttmann, V* (1994) Experimental data on oxide fracture. Mater. High Temp., 12 (2-3). 163 - 168

O

Osgerby, S; Dyson, B F (1994) Validation of a constitutive model for creep deformation and fracture in a 1Cr1/2Mo ferritic steel. In: Materials for Advanced Power Engineering, 3 - 6 October 1994, Liege, France.

Osgerby, S; Peck, M S (1994) Characterisation of tensile creep behaviour of HIP Si3N4. NPL Report. DMM(A)159

P

Parkin, G I (1994) Survey of formal methods in software engineering. LOTOS News, 1 (Februa). pp. 18-20.

Parkin, G I (1994) Virtual terminal and open systems testing. Rail Bulletin (April/). 20 - 21

Parkin, G I (1994) The programming language standards scene, ten years on: Paper 15: Vienna Development Method Specification Language (VDM-SL). Comput. Stand. Interfaces, 16. 527 -530

Parkin, G I; Austin, S M (1994) Overview: survey of formal methods in industry. IFIP Trans. C, Commun. Syst. (Netherlands), C - 22. 189 - 203

Partridge, R H; Alphonso, D; Brookes, C; Butterfield, D M; D'Souza, H (1994) Provision of multicomponent hydrocarbon test mixtures and authentic air samples in a second intercomparison campaign to assess the measurement accuracy of laboratories carrying out VOC determinations in the European Community: report of work performed under EC contracts No. B4-3040/92/016847 and No. 5257-93-04 PC ISP GB. NPL Report. QU 103

Payne, R C (1994) The effect of atmospheric pressure on measured aircraft noise levels. NPL Report. RSA(EXT) 48

Petley, B W (1994) Clocking the fundamental physical constants. Phys. World, 7 (1). pp. 23-24.

Petley, B W (1994) Electrical units - the last thirty years. Metrologia, 32. 495 - 502

Petley, B W (1994) A brief history of the electrical units to 1964. Metrologia, 32. 481 - 494

Pickering, J R*; Wright, P S (1994) A new wattmeter for traceable power measurements at audio frequencies. In: Conference Digest on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), 27 June - 1 July 1994, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Pickering, J R*; Wright, P S (1994) A new wattmeter for traceable power measurements at audio frequencies. IEE Colloq. Dig., 203. 7/1-7/4

Q

Quested, P N; Brooks, R F; Hayes, D M; Mills, K C (1994) Evaluation of cleanness for advanced steels and nickel-based superalloys. In: Proc. 1994 Int. Symp. Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, September 1994, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Quested, P N; Hayes, D M (1994) The evaluation of cleanness by electron beam button melting and other methods - a review. In: Proc. Conf. Electron Beam Melting and Refining State of the Art 1994, 30 October - 1 November 1994, Reno, Nevada.

Quincey, P (1994) Is your gas monitor giving the right answer? Health & Safety at Work (Decemb).

Quincey, P (1994) Report on a SQUID made from high temperature superconductor. NPL Report. DES 132

Quincey, P; Woods, P T; Nettleton, D H (1994) Pinning gas analysis to firm foundations. Laboratory News, 516 (VAM in). 6 - 7.

Quincey, P G (1994) High Tc Josephson junctions combining a grain boundary and local strain, using NdGaO3 bicrystal substrates. Appl. Phys. Lett., 64 (4). pp. 517-519.

R

Read, B E; Dean, G; Tomlins, P E (1994) Creep and physical ageing of PVC: dependence on stress and temperature. J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 172. 562 - 568

Read, B E; Tomlins, P E (1994) Creep recovery of PVC and polypropylene. NPL Report. DMM(A)151

Redgrove, J (1994) Improved method for measurement of spectral emittance to high temperatures. High Temp. Chem. Processes, 3. 187 - 193

Redgrove, J (1994) Spectral emittance measurements with the new NPL high temperature emissometer. In: Proc. 6th Int. Symp. on materials in a space environment, 19 - 23 September 1994, ESTE, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.

Reher, D F G*; Aalbers, A H L*; Bjerke, H*; Drugge, N*; Genka, T*; Rossiter, M J; Santry, D*; Sephton, J P; Sibbens, G*; Seuntjens, J*; Thierens, H*; Verhaegan, F*; Williams, T T; Woods, M J (1994) Second EUROMAT comparison of air kerma rate and activity measurements of 192Ir brachytherapy wires. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, Accel. Spectrom. Detec. Assoc. Equip., 339 (1-2). pp. 386-390.

Rides, M (1994) Rheological measurement methods for fibre filled plastics. NPL Report. DMM(A)149

Rides, M (1994) Theoretical basis for elasticity measurements of polymer melts and rubbers. NPL Report. DMM(A)127

Ridler, N M (1994) Evaluating and expressing uncertainty in measurement. In: COPEL Training Centre Seminar, June 1994, Curitiba, Brazil.

Ridler, N M (1994) Progress towards documentation for uncertainty practices in testing. EUROLAB Newsletter (9.5). p. 5.

Ridler, N M (1994) A new VHF impedance measuring instrument for the United Kingdom's national standard. IEE Proc. Sci. Meas. Technol., 141 (1). pp. 71-74.

Ridler, N M; Medley, J C (1994) Calibration technique using new calculable standard for RF reflectometers fitted with GPC-7 connectors. In: Conference Digest on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), 27 June - 1 July 1994, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Ridler, N M; Medley, J C (1994) New calculable standards for reflectometers in 7 mm coaxial line. In: 21st Automated RF and Microwave Measurements Society (ARMMS) Conference, September 1994, University of Surrey.

Ridler, N M; Medley, J C (1994) New technique checks accuracy of impedance measurements. Microw. RF, 33 (1). 105 - 106

Ridler, N M; Medley, J C (1994) Traceable reflection coefficient measurements in coaxial line at MF and HF. IEE Colloq. Dig., 042. 8/1-8/4

Robinson, S P; Doré, G R (1994) Uncertainties in the calibration of hydrophones at NPL by the three-transducer spherical-wave reciprocity method in the frequency range 10kHz to 500 kHz. NPL Report. RSA(EXT) 54

Robinson, S P; Doré, G R; Zhang, J*; Derell, O* (1994) A first stage in the development of new reference hydrophones for the frequency range 100-500 kHz. In: 2nd European Conference on Underwater Acoustics, July 1994, Lyngby, Denmark.

Robinson, S P; Doré, G R; Zhang, J*; Humphrey, V F* (1994) A first stage in the development of new reference hydrophones for the frequency range 100-500 kHz. In: 2nd European Conference on Underwater Acoustics, July 1994, Lyngby, Denmark.

Roebuck, B (1994) International interlaboratory bend tests for hardmetals. Int. J. Refrac. Hard Mat., 12. pp. 231-237.

Roebuck, B (1994) Magnetic moment (saturation) measurements on hardmetals. NPL Report. DMM(A)146

Roebuck, B (1994) Uniaxial testing of particulate reinforced MMC. Mater. Des., 15 (1). 15 - 25

Roebuck, B; Lord, J D; Cooper, P M; McCartney, L N (1994) Data acquistion and analysis of tensile properties for metal matrix composites. J. Test. Eval., 22 (1). pp. 63-69.

Roebuck, B; Lord, J D; Orkney, L P (1994) Compression testing of metal matrix composites. In: ECCM CTS 2 (Testing and Standardisation) European Conference, 13-15 September 1994, Hamburg, Germany.

Rosser, K E (1994) An ice calorimeter for photon dosimetry. Phys. Med. Biol., 39. pp. 293-298.

Rosser, K E; Duane, S (1994) An ice calorimeter for medium energy x-ray dosimetry. In: NPL Calorimetry Workshop, 12 - 14 October 1994, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK.

Rosser, K E; Duane, S; Sharpe, P H G S; Nyström, H* (1994) New developments in the Division of Radiation Science and Acoustics at NPL. Phys. Med. Biol., 39a. 793 (abstract only)

Rosser, K E; Owen, B; DuSautoy, A R; Pritchard, D H; Stoker, I; Brend, C J (1994) The NPL absorbed dose to water calibration service for high-energy photons. IAEA Publication STI/PUB/ 930. 73 - 81

Rusby, R L (1994) Traceable temperatures, by J V Nicholas and D R White: book review. Meas. Control,, 27 (5). p. 167.

Rusby, R L; Hudson, R P*; Durieux, M* (1994) Revised values for (t90 - t68) from 630ºC to 1064ºC. Metrologia, 31. 149 - 153

S

Saunders, S R J; Nagl, M M; Schütze, M* (1994) Measurement methods for the determination of fracture strain. Mater. High Temp., 12 (2-3). pp. 103-109.

Schoch, B; Jones, B E*; Franks, A (1994) A simple technique for the manufacture of optical probes for scanning near-field optical microscopes. Meas. Sci. Technol., 5 (6). 663 - 666

Seah, M P (1994) Comment on 'Neglected and hidden errors in the quantification of Auger electron spectroscopy' by J. du Plessis (Surf. Interface Anal. 20, 228 (1993)). Surf. Interface Anal., 21. 587 - 589

Seah, M P (1994) Proficiency testing in surface analysis. VAM Bulletin, 11. pp. 22-24.

Seah, M P (1994) Quantitative surface analysis - detectors, repeatability and reproducibility in analogue detection. VAM Bulletin, 11. p. 36.

Seah, M P (1994) A system for the intensity calibration of electron spectrometers. NPL Report. DMM(A)139

Seah, M P; Hunt, C P (1994) Optimisation and specification of Auger electron spectrometers for signal-to-noise ratio performance. J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 67. pp. 151-157.

Seah, M P; Qiu, J H*; Cumpson, P J; Castle, J E* (1994) Simple method of depth profiling (stratifying) contamination layers,illustrated by studies on stainless steel. Surf. Interface Anal., 21. 336 -341

Seah, M P; Qiu, J H*; Cumpson, P J; Castle, J E* (1994) Stability of reference masses II: the effect of environment and cleaning methods on the surfaces of stainless steel and allied materials. Metrologia, 31. 93 - 108

Seah, M P; Qiu, J H*; Cumpson, P J; Castle, J E* (1994) A simple method of depth profiling (stratifying) contamination layers illustrated by studies on stainless steel. Surf. Interface Anal., 21. pp. 336-341.

Shafirstein, G; Gee, M G; Osgerby, S; Saunders, S R J (1994) Error analysis in nanoindentation. In: Materials Research Society Symposium on Thim films: Stresses and mechanical properties V., November 1994, Boston, USA.

Shaw, A (1994) Prediction of temperature rise in layered media from measured ultrasonic intensity data. Phys. Med. Biol., 39. 1203 -1218

Shaw, A; Preston, R C (1994) Recent developments in the NPL ultrasound beam calibrator. In: Abstracts of the Institute of Physics Annual Congress, 1994, Brighton.

Shipley, D R; Duane, S (1994) Corrections to air kerme rate measurements of 125I brachytherapy sources to free space conditions. NPL Report. RSA(EXT) 51

Shipley, D R; Duane, S (1994) Determination of poton fluence spectra from NPL Mobaltron 60Co unit. NPL Report. RSA(EXT) 46

Sims, G D (1994) International standardisation of coupon and structural element test methods. In: ECCM CTS - 2nd European Conference on Composites Testing and Standardisation, September 1994, Hamburg, Germany.

Sims, G D; Nimmo, W; Johnson, A F; Ferriss, D H (1994) Analysis of plate-twist test plane shear modulus of composite materials. NPL Report. DMM(A)54

Sinclair, M W; Williams, G L (1994) Complex microwave noise parameter measurement using a coaxial radiometer. IEE Colloq. Dig., 042. 3/1-3/4

Smith, D; Perks, C A* (1994) Calibration of the sulphur detector in the UK criticality dosemeter. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., A339. pp. 1-5.

Smith, D; Woods, D H (1994) Measurement of 75Se activity by correlation and coincidence counting. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., A339. pp. 357-361.

Stevens, R (1994) Constant-deviation reflection with a microlens array. Pure Appl. Opt., 3 (2). pp. 109-114.

Stewart, M (1994) Survey of sub-micrometre powder size measurement for ceramic and cermet powders. NPL Report. DMM(A)152

Susa, M; Mills, K C; Richardson, M J; Taylor, R* (1994) Thermal properties of slag films taken from the continuous casting mould. Ironmaking - Steelmaking, 21. 279 - 286

T

Tan, M*; Weaver, D R*; Scott, M C*; Thomas, D J (1994) A new dose-equivalent counter for neutron area monitoring. In: Proc. Int. Conf. Neutrons and their applications, 12 - 18 June 1994, Crete, Greece.

Taylor, G C (1994) Recent developments in microdosimetry at NPL. In: Proc. 17th IRPA Regional Congress, 6 - 10 June 1994, Portsmouth.

Taylor, J A F; Clarke, P J; Hanson, A R; Knee, P C; Verrill, J F (1994) An investigation into the human visual system in the mesopic region using both a classical optical instrument and a visual display unit. In: Symposium on Advances in Photometry, December 1994, Vienna, Austria.

Thomas, D J; Alevra, A V*; Hunt, J B; Schraube, H O E* (1994) Experimental determination of the response of four Bonner sphere sets to thermal neutrons. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 54 (1). 25 - 31

Tomlins, P E; Read, B E; Dean, G (1994) The effect of temperature on creep and physical ageing of poly (vinyl chloride). Polymer, 35. pp. 4376-81.

Tortorelli, P F*; Saunders, S R J; Shafirstein, G; Hall, D J (1994) Use of the mechanical properties microprobe for characterization of oxide scales. Mater. High Temp., 12 (2-3). 95 - 101

Turnbull, A (1994) Standardisation of hydrogen permeation measurement by the electrochemical technique. In: Hydrogen Transport and Cracking in Metals, April 1994, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington.

Turnbull, A; Griffiths, A J (1994) Implications of hydrogen uptake and transport for EAC testing and interpretation of results. In: UK Corrosion and Eurocorr 94, October 1994, Bournemouth.

Turnbull, A; Hutchings, R B (1994) Analysis of hydrogen atom transport in a two phase alloy. Mater. Sci. Eng.A, Struct. Mater., Prop. Microstruct. Process., A177 (1 - 2). 161 - 171

Turnbull, A; Lembach-Beylegaard, E; Hutchings, R B (1994) Hydrogen transport in SAF 2205 and SAF 2507 duplex stainless steels. In: Proc. Hydrogen Transport and Cracking in Metals, April 1994, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington.

Turnbull, A; Lembach-Beylegaard, E; Hutchings, R B (1994) Hydrogen transport in duplex stainless steels. In: Proc. Duplex Stainless Steels '94, November 1994, Glasgow.

V

Verrill, J F (1994) Measurement standards for on-line spectrophotometry between 200 nm and 3000 nm. In: On-line optical measurements: calibration and validation, joint meeting, NPL Spectrophotometry and Colorimetry Club and Institute of Measurement and Control, 17 February 1994, NPL, Teddington.

Virdee, M (1994) Absolute non-contacting method to characterise X-ray mirrors with large radii with nanometer accuracy. Proc. SPIE - Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., 2088. 170 -174

Von Rensberg, R J *; Humberstone, V *; Close, J A *; Taverner, A W *; Stevens, R *; Greenhough, R D *; O'Connor, K P *; Gee, M G (1994) Review of constitutive description and measurement methods for piezoelectric, electrostrictive and magnetostrictive materials. NPL Report. DMM(A)143

W

Whibberley, P B; Davis, J A (1994) Advances in time and frequency metrology. NPL News, 374 (Spring). p. 27.

White, J R*; Turnbull, A (1994) Weathering of polymers: mechanisms of degradation and stabilization: testing strategies and modelling. J. Mater. Sci., 29 (3). pp. 584-613.

Wichmann, B (1994) Contribution of standard programming languages to software quality. Softw. Eng. J., 9 (1). pp. 3-12.

Wichmann, B (1994) Modularization for assurance: gauging safety and quality. In: Proc. Conf. Safety through quality. British Computer Society Modular Languages Special Interest Group, 6 - 7 June 1994.

Wichmann, B (1994) Producing critical systems: the Ada 9X solution. In: Redmill, F, and Anderson, T, eds. Technology and assessment of safety-critical systems. Springer-Verlag.

Wichmann, B (1994) Strategy on the use of SPARK. NPL Report. DITC 227/94

Williams, G L (1994) Measuring amplifier noise on a noise source calibration radiometer. In: Conference Digest on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), 27 June - 1 July 1994, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

Woods, M J (1994) Quality assurance and traceability in radiation protection: the role of the national standards laboratory. In: Proc 17th IRPA Regional Congress, 6 - 10 June 1994, Portsmouth.

Woods, P T; Milton, M J T; Bell, W; Partridge, R H; Martin, N A; Gardiner, T; Robinson, R A; Swann, N R W; D'Souza, H (1994) Advanced remote monitoring techniques for atmospheric measurements. NPL Report. QU 102

Wright, P S (1994) Traceability in power/reactive power measurements and assessment tests for "IEC555 Power Analyzers", using the NPL Mk.III digital sampling wattmeter. In: IEE Colloquium on Low Frequency Power Measurement and Analysis, November 1994.

Y

Yeo, S P*; Cheng, M*; Bannister, D J; Ide, J P (1994) Detection of 180ø phase discrepancies in multiport waveguide transmission measurements. In: Proc. IMTC'94, Advanced Technologies in I & M, 10 - 12 May 1994, Hamamatsu, Japan.

Z

Zeqiri, B; Reibold, R*; Hekkenberg, R T* (1994) Development of standard measurement methods for essential properties of ultrasound therapy equipment. Ultrasound Med. Biol., 20 (1). pp. 83-98.

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