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Measurement and characterisation of radiated underwater sound from a 3.6 MW monopile wind turbine.

Pangerc, T; Theobald, P; Wang, L S; Robinson, S P; Lepper, P A* (2016) Measurement and characterisation of radiated underwater sound from a 3.6 MW monopile wind turbine. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 140 (4). pp. 2913-2922.

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Abstract

This study describes underwater sound pressure measurements obtained in close proximity to two individual wind turbines (~50 m) for the full range of turbine operating conditions. The measured sound comprised tonal frequency components with most energy below around 420 Hz. Spectral characteristics and sound level data were generally consistent between turbines. The main radiated frequency component at and around 162 Hz was typically present when the turbine operated at close to optimal generating conditions. Expressed for the one-third octave band with a nominal centre frequency at 160 Hz, the measured levels ranged from 73 dB to 111 re 1 µPa2Hz-1. The un-weighted, root-mean square sound pressure levels peaked at around 116 dB re 1 µPa for the 160 Hz one-third-octave band. Other tonal components were also present in the dataset during turbine operation, notably around 22 Hz and 321 Hz, while others were difficult to discern from background noise due to insufficient signal-to-noise ratio. The time-varying spectral characteristics were examined against the wind-driven turbine rotation parameters and nacelle orientation. The characteristic frequency and amplitude variations generally coincided with the turbine operation, driven by changes in wind speed, and were consistent throughout the deployment period. No clear directional dependence was observed.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: underwater, acoustics, renewables, operational offshore wind turbine noise
Subjects: Acoustics
Acoustics > Underwater Acoustics
Identification number/DOI: 10.1121/1.4964824
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2018 13:13
URI: http://eprintspublications.npl.co.uk/id/eprint/7298

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