< back to main site

Publications

Composition, thickness, and homogeneity of the coating of core-shell nanoparticles-possibilities, limits, and challenges of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Radnik, J; Knigge, X; Andresen, E; Resch-Genger, U; Cant, D J H; Shard, A G; Clifford, C A (2022) Composition, thickness, and homogeneity of the coating of core-shell nanoparticles-possibilities, limits, and challenges of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 414 (15). pp. 4331-4345.

[img]
Preview
Text
eid9627.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (2MB) | Preview

Abstract

Core–shell nanoparticles have attracted much attention in recent years due to their unique properties and their increasing importance in many technological and consumer products. However, the chemistry of nanoparticles is still rarely investigated in comparison to their size and morphology. In this review, the possibilities, limits, and challenges of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for obtaining more insights into the composition, thickness, and homogeneity of nanoparticle coatings are discussed with four examples: CdSe/CdS quantum dots with a thick coating and a small core; NaYF4-based upconverting nanoparticles with a large Yb-doped core and a thin Er-doped coating; and two types of polymer nanoparticles with a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) core with either a poly(methyl methacrylate) or polystyrene coating. Different approaches for calculating the thickness of the coating are presented, like a simple numerical modelling or a more complex simulation of the photoelectron peaks. Additionally, modelling of the XPS background for the investigation of coating is discussed. Furthermore, the new possibilities to measure with varying excitation energies or with hard-energy X-ray sources (hard-energy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) are described. A discussion about the sources of uncertainty for the determination of the thickness of the coating completes this review.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: X-ray spectroscopy (XPS/XRF/EDX); anoparticles/nanotechnology; Spectroscopy/instrumentation; Spectroscopy/theory
Subjects: Nanoscience > Surface and Nanoanalysis
Divisions: Chemical & Biological Sciences
Identification number/DOI: 10.1007/s00216-022-04057-9
Last Modified: 07 Dec 2022 15:35
URI: http://eprintspublications.npl.co.uk/id/eprint/9627

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item