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Sonocrystallisation of ZIF-8 in water with high excess of ligand: Effects of frequency, power and sonication time

Nalesso, S; Varlet, G; Bussemaker, M J; Sear, R P; Hodnett, M; Monteagudo-Olivan, R; Sebastian, V; Coronas, J; Lee, J (2021) Sonocrystallisation of ZIF-8 in water with high excess of ligand: Effects of frequency, power and sonication time. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 76. 105616

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Abstract

A systematic study on the sonocrystallisation of ZIF-8 (zeolitic imidazolate framework-8) in a water-based system was investigated under different mixing speeds, ultrasound frequencies, calorimetric powers and sonication time. Regardless of the synthesis technique, pure crystals of ZIF-8 with high BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) specific surface area (SSA) can be obtained in water after only 5 s. Furthermore, 5 s sonication produced even smaller crystals (~0.08 µm). The type of technique applied for producing the ZIF-8 crystals did not have any significant impact on crystallinity, purity and yield. Crystal morphology and size were affected by the use of ultrasound and mixing, obtaining nanoparticles with a more spherical shape than in silent condition (no ultrasound and mixing). However, no specific trends were observed with varying frequency, calorimetric power and mixing speed. Ultrasound and mixing may have an effect on the nucleation step, causing the fast production of nucleation centres. Furthermore, the BET SSA increased with increasing mixing speed. With ultrasound, the BET SSA is between the values obtained under silent condition and with mixing. A competition between micromixing and shockwaves has been proposed when sonication is used for ZIF-8 production. The former increases the BET SSA, while the latter could be responsible for porosity damage, causing a decrease of the surface area.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: MOFs Ultrasound frequency Ultrasound power Mixing Crystallinity Crystal size
Subjects: Acoustics > Underwater Acoustics
Divisions: Medical, Marine & Nuclear
Identification number/DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105616
Last Modified: 22 Jun 2022 13:06
URI: http://eprintspublications.npl.co.uk/id/eprint/9474

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