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Correlative acoustic time-of-flight spectroscopy and X-ray imaging to investigate gas-induced delamination in lithium-ion pouch cells during thermal runaway

Pham, M T M; Darst, J J; Finegan, D P; Robinson, J B; Heenan, T M M; Kok, M D R; Iacoviello, F; Owen, R; Walker, W Q; Magdysyuk, O V; Connolley, T; Darcy, E; Hinds, G; Brett, D J L; Shearing, P R (2020) Correlative acoustic time-of-flight spectroscopy and X-ray imaging to investigate gas-induced delamination in lithium-ion pouch cells during thermal runaway. Journal of Power Sources, 470. 228039 ISSN 03787753

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Abstract

It remains difficult to detect internal mechanical deformation and gas-induced degradation in lithium-ion batteries, especially outside specialized diagnostics laboratories. In this work, we demonstrate that electrochemical acoustic time-of-flight (EA-ToF) spectroscopy can be used as an insightful and field-deployable diagnostic/prognostic technique to sense the onset of failure. A 210 mAh commercial lithium-ion cell undergoing thermal abuse testing is probed with in situ and operando EA-ToF spectroscopy, together with simultaneous fractional thermal runaway calorimetry (FTRC) and synchrotron X-ray imaging. The combination of X-ray imaging and EA-ToF analysis provides new understanding into the through-plane mechanical deformation in lithium-ion batteries through direct visualisation and the acoustic ToF response. Internal structural changes, such as gas-induced delamination, are identified using EA-ToF spectroscopy due to variations in the attenuation and signal peak shifts. This is corroborated using X-ray imaging, demonstrating EA-ToF spectroscopy as a promising technique for detecting onset of battery failure.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Li-ion batteries; Battery safety; X-ray imaging; Acoustic ToF spectroscopy; Thermal runaway
Subjects: Advanced Materials > Electrochemistry
Divisions: Electromagnetic & Electrochemical Technologies
Identification number/DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.228039
Last Modified: 15 Oct 2020 09:38
URI: http://eprintspublications.npl.co.uk/id/eprint/8898

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