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Conversion from dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water in an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam.

Rossomme, S; Palmans, H; Shipley, D; Thomas, R A S; Lee, N; Romano, F*; Cirrone, P*; Bertrand, D*; Vynckier, S* (2013) Conversion from dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water in an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam. Phys. Med. Biol., 58 (16). pp. 3563-5380.

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Abstract

Based on experiments and numerical simulations, a study is carried out pertaining to the conversion of dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water in a carbon ion beam. This conversion is needed to establish graphite calorimeters as primary standards of absorbed dose in these beams. It is governed by the water-tographite mass collision stopping power ratio and fluence correction factors, which depend on the particle fluence distributions in each of the two media. The paper focuses on the experimental and numerical determination of this fluence correction factor for an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam. Measurements have been performed in the nuclear physics laboratory INFN-LNS in Catania (Sicily, Italy). The numerical simulations have been made with a Geant4Monte
Carlo code through the GATE simulation platform. The experimental data are in good agreement with the simulated results for the fluence correction factors and are found to be close to unity. The experimental values increase with depth reaching 1.010 before the Bragg peak region. They have been determined with an uncertainty of 0.25%. Different numerical results are obtained depending on the level of approximation made in calculating the fluence correction factors. When considering carbon ions only, the difference between measured and calculated values is maximal just before the Bragg peak, but its value is less than 1.005. The numerical value is close to unity at the surface and increases to 1.005 near the Bragg peak. When the fluence of all charged particles is considered, the fluence correction factors are lower than unity at the surface and increase with depth up to 1.025 before the Bragg peak. Besides carbon ions, secondary particles created due to nuclear interactions have to be included in
the analysis: boron ions (10B and 11B), beryllium ions (7Be), alpha particles and protons. At the conclusion of this work, we have the conversion of dose-tographite to dose-to-water to apply to the response of a graphite calorimeter in an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam. This conversion consists of the product of two contributions: the water-to-graphite electronic mass collision stopping power
ratio, which is equal to 1.115, and the fluence correction factor which varies linearly with depth, as kfl,all = 0.9995 + 0.0048 zw-eq. The latter has been determined on the basis of experiments and numerical simulations.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: carbon ion, radiotherapy, fluence correction, stopping power, muclear interaction, Monte Carlo, GATE, Geant4
Subjects: Ionising Radiation
Ionising Radiation > Neutron Metrology
Identification number/DOI: 10.1088/0031-9155/58/16/5363
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2018 13:14
URI: http://eprintspublications.npl.co.uk/id/eprint/5907

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