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Scattering of the field of a multi-element phased array by human ribs.

Gélat, P N; ter Haar, G*; Saffari, N* (2012) Scattering of the field of a multi-element phased array by human ribs. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 353. 012010

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The efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the non-invasive treatment of cancer has been demonstrated for a range of different cancers including those of the liver, kidney, prostate and breast. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over other techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection, in terms of invasiveness and risk of harmful side effects. Despite its advantages, however, there are a number of significant challenges currently hindering its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to induce tissue necrosis at the required foci whilst minimising the formation of side lobes. Multi-element random arrays are currently showing great promise in overcoming the limitations of single-element transducers. Nevertheless, successfully treating a patient for liver tumours requires a thorough understanding of the way in which the ultrasonic pressure field from a HIFU array is scattered by the ribcage. A mesh of quadratic pressure patches was generated using CT scan data for ribs nine to twelve on the right side. A boundary element approach based on a Generalised Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was used, in conjunction with phase conjugation techniques to focus the field of a 256-element random HIFU array past the ribs at both intercostal and transcostal treatment locations. This method has the advantage of accounting for full effects of scattering and diffraction in three dimensions under continuous wave excitation.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: HIFU, Human ribs, Multi-element phased array, Boundary element methods, Scattering, Ultrasound ablation
Subjects: Acoustics
Acoustics > Ultrasound
Identification number/DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/353/1/012010
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2018 13:14
URI: http://eprintspublications.npl.co.uk/id/eprint/5496

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