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Sputtering, cluster primary ions and static SIMS.

Seah, M P (2008) Sputtering, cluster primary ions and static SIMS. J. Surf. Anal., 14 (4). pp. 305-311.

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Sputtering using cluster primary ion beams is very important for the future development of static SIMS and the SIMS depth profiling of organic layers. However, different results from different laboratories may be confusing. Analytical models have an important function for enabling the prediction of behaviour for practical analysis. Sigmund's model for sputtering, often used in surface analysis, is helpful and accurate in the linear cascade regime. However, for cluster sputtering this is no longer the case and spike effects need evaluation. Evidence will be presented of the spike model validity for clusters of up to more than 10 atoms over 3 orders of magnitude in sputtering yield. Using data from one primary ion, extremely good descriptions of measurements reported with other primary ions can then be achieved.

This theory is then used to evaluate the molecular ion yield behaviour of interest in the static SIMS of organics. This leads to universal dependencies for the de-protonated molecular ion yields, relating all primary ions, both single atom and cluster, which are illustrated by experimental data over 5 decades of emission intensity. This formulation permits the prediction of the (M-H)- secondary ion yield for different, or new, primary ion sources. It is shown how further gains are predicted. For analysing materials, raising the molecular secondary ion yield is extremely helpful but it is the ratio of this yield to the disappearance cross-section (the efficiency) that is critical. The relation of the damage and disappearance cross sections is formulated. Data are evaluated and a description is given to show how these cross sections are related and to provide a further universal relation for the efficiency/yield dependence of all cluster ions.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Cluster ions, Secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, Sputtering, Surface analysis
Subjects: Nanoscience
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2018 13:15
URI: http://eprintspublications.npl.co.uk/id/eprint/4249

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