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Characterising micro and nanoscale interfaces in advanced composites: a review.

Broughton, W R; Crocker, L E; Lodeiro, M J (2006) Characterising micro and nanoscale interfaces in advanced composites: a review. NPL Report. DEPC-MPR 055

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This report critically examines test methods and predictive analysis for characterising interfacial and interphase properties of micro- and nanofilled polymer systems, in order to ascertain the influence of these properties on the overall composite behaviour. The report covers both conventional fibre-reinforced composites and nanocomposite materials. Particular emphasis has been placed on the ability of test methods to provide reliable, quantitative data for modelling and design purposes. Novel measurement techniques, such as nanoindentation, nanoscratch, scanning probe microscopy (SPM), Raman spectroscopy and ultrasonic techniques are assessed, as well as micromechanical interface test methods (single-fibre fragmentation, fibre pull-out, microdrop/microbond and microindentation). The test methods are assessed in terms of the data generated, fitness for purpose, ease of use, sensitivity and spatial resolution, and consistency of data.
The modelling approaches considered are those in which the interface is included as one of the constituents. Predictive analysis techniques assessed include micromechanical models used for predicting elastic and strength properties of conventional composites, and modelling approaches such as molecular modelling, continuum based modelling and computational methods used for characterising the behaviour of nanocomposites. The models are discussed in terms of applicability to material type (continuous and discontinuous, aligned and random), data provided and comprehensiveness in covering all the many parameters affecting the interface in composite materials from micro- to nano-scale.
The review highlights the limitations of micromechanical interface test methods in providing reliable quantitative interfacial data. There is no single ideal or universally applicable interfacial test method nor any standard method in existence. However, scanning probe microscopy consists of a powerful set of techniques, which could potentially provide in-situ quantitative mechanical and chemical measurements for characterising interfacial and interphase properties of composite systems ranging from the micro- to the nanoscale. Combined with atomic force, acoustic, thermal and electrochemical probes, as well as nanoindentation and nanoscratch facilities, SPM could provide a comprehensive set of data sufficient to fully characterise the interface and interphase properties. It is not limited to ambient conditions, and thus could be used for in-situ environmental studies.

Item Type: Report/Guide (NPL Report)
NPL Report No.: DEPC-MPR 055
Keywords: modelling, nanocomposites, test methods
Subjects: Advanced Materials
Advanced Materials > Composites
Nanoscience > Nano-Materials
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2018 13:15
URI: http://eprintspublications.npl.co.uk/id/eprint/3659

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