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Effective methods for determining hardness and toughness of structural ceramics.

Morrell, R (2010) Effective methods for determining hardness and toughness of structural ceramics. Ceram. Trans., 219. pp. 355-361.

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In the accepted senses of the descriptors 'hardness' and 'toughness', ceramic materials are hard, but not tough. However, their applications in the modern engineering world derive from both hardness and toughness, but not in ways that are fully understood. This paper reviews the current measurement good practice for these properties and how these methods relate to performance in applications. Four particular cases are considered (orthopaedic components, metal-forming tools, bearing elements and ballistic armour) representing key markets for advanced technical ceramics. In orthopaedic components, lifetime is generally governed by toughness, while hardness tends to have more influence on counterfaces than on the ceramic itself. In metal forming tools and in bearing elements, toughness plays a dominant role in resisting damage, rather than hardness. In contrast, in ballistic armour there is as yet no clear correlation between any conventional measures of hardness and toughness and resistance to projectile penetration. Prediction of potential performance of new materials or in new applications remains difficult and uncertain.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Ceramics, hardness, fracture toughness
Subjects: Advanced Materials
Advanced Materials > Powder Route Materials
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2018 13:15
URI: http://eprintspublications.npl.co.uk/id/eprint/4862

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