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Atmospheric doping effects in epitaxial graphene: correlation of local and global electrical measurements.

Panchal, V; Giusca, C E; Lartsev, A*; Martin, N A; Cassidy, N; Myers-Ward, R L*; Gaskill, D K*; Kazakova, O (2016) Atmospheric doping effects in epitaxial graphene: correlation of local and global electrical measurements. 2D Materials, 3 (1). 015006

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Abstract

We directly correlate the local (20-nm scale) and global electronic properties of a device containing mono-, bi- and tri-layer epitaxial graphene (EG) domains on 6H-SiC(0001) by simultaneously performing local surface potential measurements using Kelvin probe force microscopy and global transport measurements. Using well-controlled environmental conditions, where the starting state of the surface can be reproducibly defined, we investigate the doping effects of N2, O2, water vapour and NO2 at concentrations representative of the ambient air. We show that presence of O2, water vapour and NO2 leads to p-doping of all EG domains. However, the thicker layers of EG are significantly less affected by the atmospheric dopants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the general consensus of O2 and water vapour present in ambient air providing majority of the p-doping to graphene is a common misconception. We experimentally show that even the combined effect of O2, water vapour, and NO2 at concentrations higher than typically present in the atmosphere does not fully replicate the state of the EG surface in ambient air. All doping effects can be reproducibly reversed by vacuum annealing. Thus, for EG gas sensors it is essential to consider naturally occurring environmental effects and properly separate them from those coming from targeted species.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Nanoscience
Nanoscience > Surface and Nanoanalysis
Identification number/DOI: 10.1088/2053-1583/3/1/015006
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2018 13:13
URI: http://eprintspublications.npl.co.uk/id/eprint/6959

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